Sociodemographic Characteristics of Pig Farmers and Management Practices

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Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 2, Issue 1, page 40 – 44
Publication Date: 10 February 2019

MAAJI Ephraim Caleb & SARKI Hassan John

MAAJI Ephraim Caleb
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine
Ahmadu Bello University
Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

SARKI Hassan John
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology
Ahmadu Bello University
Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Journal Full Text PDF: Sociodemographic Characteristics of Pig Farmers and Management Practices (Case in Zaria and Environs, Kaduna State, Nigeria).

Abstract
Pigs have been described as one of the most prolific and fast growing livestock species that can convert food waste to animal protein and Nigeria has the second largest population of pigs in Africa. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Sociodemographic characteristics of the pig farmers in Zaria and Environs. A cross sectional study design and a snowball sampling technique was carried out to identify owners/ settlements with pigs and a total of 73 questionnaires were administered to farms/ households with pigs who consented to the study. The results indicated that 64.4% of the farmers fell within the age group of 41-60 years, which was the highest range, a higher percentage of women, (50.7%) were involved in pig farming than men, (49.3%). Secondary school graduates and traders, (42.5%) demonstrated higher levels of involvement in pig farming with regards to level of education and occupation and also, 89% of pig holders preferred the semi-intensive management system while 11% practice intensive pig management, in conclusion there are more of backyard piggeries to established farms with high semi-intensive management to intensive management systems in Zaria and environs, since most of the farmers lack the funds to keep their pigs under strict intensive management.

Keywords: Pigs farmers, Sociodemographic, Snowball, Intensive, Semi-intensive, Established farms.

1. Introduction
Pigs have been described as one of the most prolific and fast growing livestock species that can convert food waste to valuable products (Vicente et al., 2011). Nigeria has the second largest population of pigs in Africa and accounts for about 4% of the total meat supply in the country (Shaibu, 1997) with men and women keen on its production and marketing (Ajala et al., 2006). Pigs are fast growing livestock that can be used to convert food waste into meat (Vicente et al., 2011), they possess high fecundity (Holness, 1991) and they are adept in adapting to any environment (Adekunele, 1995). Majority of animal protein in Nigeria is sourced from beef, pork, poultry, goats, fish and game animals (Ajala, et al., 2007). Pig production in Nigeria is relatively underdeveloped, compared to other livestock (Ajala et al., 2006) owing to the religious views of certain regions of the country. The pig population in Nigeria is estimated at over 7.4 million and is concentrated mainly in the Middle Belt and Southern parts of Nigeria (NBS, 2010). The Pig population in Kaduna State was estimated at 249, 651 (RIM, 1992), with no recent census figures till date. Majority of Porcine herds in Nigeria are owned by local pig farmers, with only a negligible proportion managed under strict intensive care by research institutes (Ajala et al., 2006). The pig industry in Nigeria can be classified into small holder farms (having fewer than 50 pigs in the herd at any point in time); medium holder farms (with 50 to 100 pigs in the herd); large holder farms (100 pigs in the herd) (Awosanya et al., 2015). The pig industry has a significant presence in North-central, North-West and South-Western geo-political States in Nigeria. The pig population contributes highly to the food security of the low income rural and peri-urban population (Ate and Oyedipe, 2011) by contributing significantly to the economic welfare of the rural population as well as playing an important role in the social and cultural life of most of the communities in the southern and middle belt states of Nigeria which includes providing cheap meat for traditional marriages and burial rites (Ate and Oyedipo, 2011). This research was carried out to determine the sociodemographic factors of pig farmers/ owners within Zaria and environs, Kaduna State Nigeria.

2. Research Methodology
2.1 Sampling design
A cross sectional study design was use in this research. A snowball sampling technique was carried out to identify owners/settlements with pigs owing to the religious views and edicts of majority of the inhabitants within Zaria and environs. Three settlements were selected, based on the presence and availability of pigs where questionnaires were administered to farms/houses and the settlements include; Shikah, Samaru and Ungwan Mangu. A total of 73 questionnaires were administered to farms/households with pigs who consented to the study ……….