Published on International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
Publication Date: June 1, 2019
Tri Sulastri, Enggar Suwarno & Gunawan Santoso
Department of Sociology, Social and Political Science, Surabaya University, Surabaya
Department of Social and Political Science, Tribhuwana Tungga Dewi University, Malang
Faculty Social and Political, PGRI Adi Buana University, Surabaya
The high costs of education for the majority of society to make the government moved to provide tuition assistance to those who need it. The aid is known as scholarships. The scholarship must be for children from lower social economic status but in reality this scholarship can be accessed by all students of various socio economic status. Not only that, often use scholarships are not used according to academic needs.
This study intends to answer issues related to the social economic status of the grantee, the scholarship utilization patterns, the relationship between the condition of social economic status of families with scholarships utilization patterns, and relationships IP (GPA) of students with scholarship utilization patterns. To answer the problem using the theory of Pierre Bourdieu (cultural capital) related to the sociology of education, which is also supported by the theory of achievement motivation and Heckhausen Mc.Clelland. This study uses a quantitative approach to the type of research that is descriptive and using sampling method with the technique of random sampling system. The study was conducted at the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, University of XYZ, Surabaya with a sample of 62 respondents. Data collection techniques used, is a structured interview using a questionnaire. Analysis of the data used, the univariate and bivariate analyzes to produce analysis that is more varied.
The findings indicate awardees not only students who come from lower social economic status, but also students of middle socioeconomic status and above. The use of the scholarship is less appropriate utilization. Family social economic status of students also relates to utilization patterns scholarship. However the level of IP (achievement index) owned student has nothing to do with the pattern of utilization.
Keywords: Social Economic Status. Achievement Index, Utilization Pattern Scholarship.
1.1 Background of Study
The high costs of education for the majority of society to make the government moved to provide tuition assistance to those who need it. The government’s efforts were housed within the articles that describe the importance of scholarships for children or studentsachievement yet belong to the lower social economic status, As listed on the Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System, Chapter V Article 12 (1.c), the article states that every student at every academic year will receive scholarships for high achievers whose parents are not able to pay the tuition.
Scholarships itself meaning gift of financial assistance granted to individuals, college students or students who are used for the sake of education to pursue. Scholarships may be granted by government agencies, corporations, foundations or other agencies. The scholarships were distributed throughout educational institutions ranging from primary education to higher education. Many types of scholarships, there are scholarships that come from the state and private scholarships for instance Special Improvement Potential (PPA), Student Learning Aid (BBM), Bank Indonesia scholarships, fellowships Supersemar Foundation, Foundation scholarships, and much more. Of course to be able to get the scholarship, there are some things that must be met, such as the requirement to obtain a scholarship PPA,certificate can not afford on the municipality / local village, still active college (not undergoing leave college) at least sit in the third semester, as evidenced by student card (KTM) and receipt of payment of fees last, and be strengthened through the testimony of the Faculty stating well-behaved, never break rules campus and are not currently receiving scholarships from other sources, students attend interviews conducted by each department head, a minimum GPA of 3.00 for the third semester students upwards, and preferably active in student activities prescribed by the University. PPA general purpose namely; Improve equity and learning opportunities for students who are having trouble paying for education,Scholarship is expected to provide assistance to students and students who are less capable, but excel in order to remain able to continue their education.
But the existence of this scholarship also can sometimes lead to problems, for example at the college level, students of various levels of socioeconomic status strive to obtain scholarships and enough students with a background in the social economic status of middle-upper who received scholarships. Faculty of Social and Political Sciences visible recipients in 2010 came from a student with a background of high social economic status as evidenced by the work of the student’s parents are civil servants and PLN consumption of 900 watts. In addition, students who receive scholarships not only has IP over 3:00 but 3:00 is a GPA below 2.75 – 2.99. Not only inaccuracy in the distribution of scholarships, found also the imprecision in the use of scholarship funds by the recipient.
Scholarship was sometimes become a passion for students who are classified as not being able to improve their academic achievement. To be able to get a scholarship takes effort very hard because the students are also vying to boost their GPA GPA decreased because if they will lose the opportunity to be able to get a scholarship. Scholarship recipients should be able to constantly improve academic performance, because to get a scholarship is not as easy as imagined. Therefore the source of the scholarships were not obtained easily, then the receiverscholarships are to be targeted primarily intended for students who excel and have constraints in terms of the economy, so they do not miss the opportunity to finish their education. The existence of this scholarship is also expected to make students become more motivated to continue to excel and be able to graduate on time.
To that issues relating to the background of the above is:
a. Students of the socio-economic status which are the scholarships?
b. How does the pattern of utilization of scholarships to the recipients?
c. Is the condition of the student family socioeconomic status associated with utilization patterns scholarship receives?
d. Is the IP (GPA) student scholarship related to utilization patterns?
1.2 Research purposes
a. To get to the bottom of the socio-economic status of parents or family scholarship recipients;
b. To determine the pattern of utilization of scholarship among scholarship recipients;
c. To know is there any relation social economic status of families of students with scholarships utilization patterns were obtained;
d. To determine the relationship between the IP owned by a student with a scholarship utilization patterns among the students of the recipient.
1.3 Benefits of research
Penenitian is expected to contribute to and enrich knowledge relating to the use of scholarships for improving student academic prsetasi recipients. Also expected to make a contribution to the scholarship fund providers that the distribution of targeted scholarships and funds could be used optimally to increase student achievement
2.1 Research Type
Research conducted using a quantitative approach with descriptive research type. This descriptive study aimed to describe accurately the characteristics of a phenomenon or problem under study.The sampling technique used is simple random sampling. The sampling technique is done at random, sample selection is done without regard strata that exist in this population. This technique is carried out on members of the population that is assumed to be homogeneous.The number of students who’ve received scholarships as many as 124 people. researchers chosethe total sample of 62 people (50 percent of the total population of the scholarship recipients).
2.2 Data collection technique
First, conduct interviews using a set of questionnaires that have been made previously to get a general idea of the scholarship utilization patterns among students from various backgrounds, social economic status. Secondary data were obtained from the Student Council and of the other parties who help provide information about their scholarships, student background, IP students and others associated with the research.
2.3 Processing and analysis of data
All the data obtained later then do the editing process (includes; double check the data that the banks have obtained from the field). then performed the data input via Ms.Excel after it was used SPSS.16 program to process them further. The analysis was performed by analyzing each variable declared with frequency distribution, both in absolute numbers and percentage, accompanied by a qualitative explanation. Using a cross table to highlight and analyze the differences or the relationship between the two variables. Test whether there is a difference/ relationship between variables, In the data analysis is divided into two levels, namely the univariate analysis (every variable declared with frequency distribution, both in absolute numbers and percentage, accompanied by a quantitative explanation) and bivariate (connecting between two variables that intends to find out there is an attachment or not between the variables X and Y).
3. Result and Discussion
Socio-economic status of parents greatly impact the fulfillment of the needs of families as well as education. Social economic status (SES) is a contextual variables are most widely used in educational research. This can be seen in one study conducted by White and colleagues (SR SirinSocioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research. Review of Educational Research, 75 (3), 417-453), they examined the relationship between social economic status of families with their children’s academic achievement. White and colleagues conducted a research on the relationship between academic achievement and SES, shows that the relationship is very varied significantly by a number of factors such as the type of measures of SES and academic achievement. White also explains the parent’s income as an indicator of SES which reflects the potential social and economic resources available to students.
Social economic status and educational achievement is affecting their children. Parents who come from higher socio economic status has a lot of expenses incurred willingly for the sake of quality education for children, while families with low social economic status often choose not to continue their children’s school because of limited funds.Problems in education related to the limited cost of education makes the government moved to provide assistance that is often called a scholarship, this aid is intended for children from poor families to continue their education to a higher level without thinking of the high cost.
However, the data in the field show not only the student awardees lower socioeconomic status, but students with medium social economic status are also getting. Seen in the last education is the student’s parents and the parenting job S1 students are civil servants (Civil Service) not only that parental income respondents on average more than USD 3,000,000.
Social economic status is affecting a person’s lifestyle. Students with higher social economic status who are used to a lifestyle of glamor or always fulfilled all the needs of real life without the scholarship fund can still get all that is needed, it is so contrary to the lifestyle of students from lower social economic status. The findings show the data in the field of scholarship funds obtained partly used to pay tuition, buy books, photocopy lecture materials, pay boarding, and others. While students from higher social economic status in terms of utilization seems less appropriate because sometimes the scholarship fund is used for extra pocket money, to buy clothes, to the streets, for memghabiskan time with her friends there also are used in part to buy the gadgets and install Brachet. Utilization of scholarships should be used for the purposes that can support the increased academic achievement scholarship owned so will not be revoked by the scholarship.
Academic achievement is often associated with social economic status of parents, students and middle social economic status have greater access to learning facilities (buy a book, have a laptop and a modem, etc.). These facilities help students improve their academic achievement. High achievement is a way for students from lower social economic status to get a scholarship.Scholarship is a means for students with lower social economic status in order to achieve academic success. Bourdieu through the reproductive cycle explains how students (lower social economic status) achieve academic success. Someone who comes from a low social economic status trying to achieve outstanding success. To get into a prestigious college freshmen have to follow the tests for admission to the college. Once students get into college a lot of things have to be prepared so they can succeed in his studies, for example by using a variety of media to support the learning process so that they managed to get good grades. Not only that, students who come from lower social economic status should be able to adjust to the students of other social economic status in order to understand the various rules that exist. If they are not able to follow it all then they will not succeed. (Harker, Richard.Cheelen Mahar, Chris Wilkes, (habitus X Capital) + sphere = Practice, trans. Pipit Maizier (Yogyakarta: Jalasutra, 2009), 111.)
Academic achievement of a student achieved is the result of the interaction of various factors, both from within the student (internal factors) and external self-student (external factors). Achievement motivation can assist students in obtaining high achievement, of course, someone will be motivated if they have a purpose. Students should be able to obtain an IP high due to the high IP will make it easier to get a scholarship and of course they would complete college on time.
Data on the ground suggest students improve their business performance and sustain a wide range, for example increase the learning achievement by way of frequent discussions with friends, it is often done as a discussion can be done anywhere and do not need the tense atmosphere. Most do not choose to read the book because they think would make a bored and sleepy. How the selected students will help in getting a good IP, since the IP superior ease in mendaptkan scholarship.Student motivation to learn different course as well as a way of learning that is selected. How to learn a person can show the success it achieves. As proposed by theHeckhausen in writing Purnomo Aji, he explains achievement motivation is an attempt to improve personal capacity as high as possible in all its activities by using the size advantage as a comparison. McClelland and his colleagues explain achievement motivation is as an attempt to achieve the best possible result with reference to a certain standard of excellence.
In connection with the achievement motivation that results will be visible on student academic achievement. IP is the result of learning or academic prsetasi measuring instrument obtained a good student, students S1 and S3.The findings of the data shows that students have the IP below or above the 3:00 can access existing scholarship on campus. The role of scholarship here is very motivating for the students to maintain or increase the owned IP. IP students are very diverse ranging from 2.98 – 3.7, many of the scholarship recipients have such IP 3:08 – 3.65 IP that students have helped them in getting or accessing scholarships. But many are also among those with IP 2:50 to 3:07, which also received a scholarship.
For some students, the scholarship can be a motivation in his academic field. For students whose IP under 3:00 to earn the scholarship with the IP minimal should be very difficult to access the scholarships, but many of the students with the IP under the condition (3.00) admitted if a scholarship because of its activity in the organization that is in a campus environment , With the existence of this scholarship student with the IP over or under the terms should be able to increase or maintain that academic achievement scholarship owned not revoked by the donor of scholarships.
a. Regarding the social economic status of parents of students grantee results data showed SES (Social Economic Status) parent respondents mostly on social economic status. This is proved by the latest education parent respondents were S1, higher education greatly affects a person’s job. From the data on employment can most respondents parents are civil servants. And the parents income respondents more than US $ 3,000,000.00;
b. The utilization pattern of scholarship undertaken by students proved utilization is less fit for purpose given the scholarship. of the findings of the data many students use it for extra pocket money. But sometimes they use balanced to the needs of the academic and non-academic needs beyond;
c. The findings of the data shows, the relationship between social economic status of parents of students with the use of student scholarships that do affect the pattern of utilization for the students with low social economic status utilization rate can be said to correspond scholarship, while students social economic status is high utilization rate can be said to be less appropriate scholarship;
d. The relationship between the IP of the respondents to the pattern of utilization showed no relationship between the level of IP students with utilization patterns scholarships for students with an IP low level of utilization of scholarships classified accordingly, while respondents with IP being the level of utilization of scholarship classified as less appropriate as well as respondents with a relatively high IP.