Effect of Air Quality Washing and Quality Thickness in Centrifugal Sugar Processes

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Published on International Journal of Food & Nutrition
Publication Date: July 17, 2019

Mulawarman Saleh, Sohib Burhanudin & Sussy Trisnawati
Dharma Yadi College of Technology, Makassar, South Sulawesi
YPAG Nutrition Sciences Academy, Makassar, South Sulawesi
Indonesia

Journal Full Text PDF: Effect of Air Quality Washing and Quality Thickness in Centrifugal Sugar Processes.

Abstract
This study aims to determine the amount of washing water and thickness of the dishes on the centrifugal process that can affect the characteristics and quality of the sugar. The method used is a 3×3 factorial randomized block design with three replications. The first factor is the amount of washing water (A), which consists of three levels ie 0.58%; 1.04%; 1.49% and the second factor is the thickness of the cuisine (B) which consists of three levels ie 2 cm to 3 cm; 4 cm. Parameters measured were the levels of sediment, color, yield, sucrose content and crystal size gula.Hasil research shows that the amount of washing water and thickness cuisine significant effect on levels of sediment, color, and size of the sucrose content of sugar crystals with the best results on the amount of wash water 1.49% and a thickness of 2 cm dishes, as well as to the sugar yield best results on the number of water washing dishes 0.58% and a thickness of 4 cm. While based on the scoring of test methods showed that the best sample is the amount of 1.04% of washing water and thickness of 2 cm dishes

Keyword: The washing water, the thickness of the dishes, centrifugation & sugar.

I. Introduction
Sugar is a strategic commodity in view of its presence as one of the nine basic needs of society. Sugar as a sweetener that is intended to meet the needs of the food and beverage industry activity is pure sugar or sugar refinery because it can produce a good quality product. Indonesia’s refined sugar production reached 1 million tons, while the need for refined sugar for food and beverage industry is only about 700000-800000 tonnes per year. But most of the food and beverage industry for large-scale use refined sugar is much more like using direct imports of refined sugar instead of refined sugar locally because prices are cheaper and the quality is better and awake 99.90%, the rate of color 35 IU unit, the water content 0.06%, ash content 0.02%, crystal clean, dry, odorless uniform size or foreign taste, Mochtar [1].

According to Birch & Parker [2], to produce refined sugar with a good quality is influenced by the quality of raw sugar (raw sugar) and the process is being able to determine the level of efficiency of the process of refining the dirt removal.
Based on the Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-3140.1-2001) raw sugar (raw sugar) are crystalline sucrose sugar made from sugar cane through defecation process that can not be directly consumed by humans before further processing. One basic functions in refined sugar is color. So color is an important parameter in quality control processes refined sugar. However the color has two important aspects: (1) one of the assessment criteria which can be seen, (2) as a measure of the degree of purity, Moerdokusumo [3]. The problem of color in the visual assessment of white sugar is very complex and there are various concepts that everything is highly subjective. Although present in very small amounts (0.1%) dye in the sugar determines the quality of sugar [3].
According, Paton [4], that which causes the discoloration is due to the reducing sugars, amino acids, and the phenol component. Meanwhile, James-Chung [5], states that there are some new color components (the result of the process) gives a sense of the kinds of sugar products, it is necessary to cope with the handling, especially for reducing impurities, turbidity and color.
According to [5], is one of the centrifugal removal of impurities in the refined process which aims to separate massecuite into crystalline sugar and molasses with the involvement of labor of centrifuges. But in this process can occur lose sugar because the sugar dissolve when washing with hot water thereby affecting the polarization sugar levels and uniformity of grain size of the sugar crystals. Also still sticking molasses in the sugar crystals if the washing time is too short and the thickness of improper food will be problems in the centrifugal process, thus necessary to control the amount of washing water and thickness of the dishes so as to provide the color and quality of a good sugar. [5].

II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Materials and Devices Research
2.1.1 Materials Research
Primary materials and supplementary used in this study is raw sugar (raw sugar), hot water, green syrup, sweet water, CO2 gas, steam, milk of lime, and a filter aid.
The chemicals used in this study is an indicator EBT, buffer solution (NH 4 Cl), 0.01 M EDTA solution and 4%, normal Fehling (Fehling Fehling’s A and B), methylene blue, pure sucrose, 0.1N HCl , 0.1 N NaOH, TEA 4%, phenopthalin (PP), Whatman filter paper No. 42 and 91, lead acetate trihydrate, ethyl alcohol, the membrane filter 0.8 m, as well as the distilled water.

2.1.2 Research Tools
The tools used in this study is the scale of the raw sugar, magma Mingler, sub-mixer, high grade centrifugal, screw conveyor, melter, reaction tanks and tank karbonator, ion exchange resins, vacuum pan, and massecuite receivers.
The tools used in chemical analysis is a beaker, funnel short, Erlenmeyer flask, flask, burette, scales, refractometer, spectrophotometer, pHmeter, polarimeter, moister analyzer toledo, conductivity meters, filtering flask, inclyno and hot plate.

2.2 Research Methods
2.2.1 Research Introduction
The preliminary study carried out consisted of an analysis of raw materials and the determination of the optimal dose of the addition of milk of lime (Ca (OH) 2) in the carbonation process.

1. Analysis of Raw Materials
Analysis of raw material such as the analysis of raw sugar (raw sugar). Analysis of raw sugar (raw sugar) which do include the levels of sucrose by methods polarimetry, ICUMSA [10], the water content directly to the moister analyzer method toledo, Anton Priyantono [11], the determination of the color of spectrophotometric method [10], reducing sugar method Lane- Eynon [5], and ash content konduktometri method [5].

2. Determination of Optimal Dose addition of lime milk (Ca (OH) 2)
Dose of lime milk is added to the raw liqour was 6.5%; 7.1%; 7.4% v / v. Optimal doses obtained will be used for primary research. Analysis performed is to filtrate II includes pH directly with pHmeter, Anton Priyantono [11], CaO content titration method [5] and color spektrofotometris method [10].

2.2.2 Primary Research
The main research carried out is made up of the draft treatment, experimental design, design analysis and design response.

1. Draft Treatment
The design of treatment on primary research consisted of two factors: the amount of washing water and thickness of dishes, each of which consists of three levels, namely:
(1) The first factor: the number of water washing (A)
a1 = 0.58% (in 2 seconds and 3 seconds)
a2 = 1.04% (in 4 seconds and 5 seconds)
a3 = 1.49% (in 6 seconds and 7 seconds)

(2) The second factor: the cuisine thickness (B)
b1 = 2 cm
b2 = 3 cm
b3 = 4 cm

2. Design of Experiments
Model experimental design used in this study is a randomized complete block design with a pattern of 2 factors with 3 levels with replications performed 3 times restating.

3. Draft Response
The draft response on primary research include the assay of sucrose by methods polarimetry [10], the determination of the color of spectrophotometric method [10], the levels of sediment filtration method [5], the determination of the size of the sugar crystals methods Butler [10], and the determination of rendemen methods SJM (Sugar Juice Mollases) formula [10].

4. Selection of the best samples
The sample selection is best done by
response analysis result data (sediment levels, color, yield, levels of sucrose, sugar crystal size) of the sample at a major research using test scores.

III. DISCUSSION
3.1 Introduction of Research
3.1.1 Analysis of Raw Materials (Raw Sugar)
This preliminary study carried out analysis of raw materials (raw sugar). Parameters measured were to moisture, color, content of sucrose, reducing sugars, and ash content. To more clearly the results of the analysis of raw materials (raw sugar) can be seen in Table 1.
PH of the observed data in Table 2 shows that the higher the dose the addition of milk of lime will increase the pH value, due to the addition of lime milk causes the pH rises and sugar solution becomes alkaline. In this preliminary study selected doses of lime milk 6.5% because if the use of lime milk in large quantities can lead to increased production costs and by, Goutara & Wijandi [12], that the pH of 7 can cause decomposition of reducing sugars into acids organic will be easier and reducing sugar of damage resulting sugar solution color becomes dark.
The observation of the colors in Table 2 shows that increasing doses of lime milk is given, then the resulting color will be higher. It should not be so if the reaction is the reaction time and sufficient condition of good process parameters, according to [12], the addition of lime function is to bind or help form a precipitate, which Ca2 + cations react with anions and colloids in solution to form a precipitate. If the lime content is increased then the precipitate formed will also be more and more so that the colors will be low. This is thought to occur because of the carbonation process excess lime milk is not fully neutralized by CO2 gas so that the color is still high. This preliminary research is taken a dose of 6.5% lime milk. The observation of CaO content in Table 2 shows that increasing the dose of lime milk will be higher lime content. Production Process of refined sugar in Preliminary studies are in Annex 1.
According to [3], that the addition of lime milk the higher will bind and precipitate the dirt so the color will be even lower, but the rest of the content of lime in sugar solution would lead to scaling of plant equipment and will affect the quality of the sugar, in addition to causing incrustation in the pan evaporator and ripening, which inhibits heat transfer so that the steam consumption increases. Thus, on this preliminary research is taken a dose of 6.5% lime milk.

3.2 Primary Research
3.2.1 Analysis of Sediment levels
Levels of sediment is intended to find the source of foreign substances that may arise in the process, such as the cooking pan, a tank, and arising at the time of warming that the iron content and other particles [5]. Typically this is done to control the effectiveness of the filter and leaks, Kirk-Othmer [13].
Results of analysis of variance on levels of sediment indicate that many factors washing water gives a real impact and to the results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for those factors can be seen in Table 3.

Table 3 The influence of the amount of washing water to the sediment concentration (ppm)
Table 3 shows the magnitude of the average levels of sediment due to the addition of wash water where there is a significant difference in each treatment. Visible seen that the highest sediment levels at treatment a1 is 9.83 ppm, while the lowest levels of the sediments in the treatment a3 is 6.72 ppm. Decreased levels of sediment significant effect on the increase in the wash water. This happens because water as the solvent molecules can bind a variety of compounds in food through hydrogen bonding. The water’s ability to detach and separate it from crystal dishes and molasesnya where the compounds resulting from the process carried in molasses. Thus the content of the sediment in the crystal sugar is low.
Results of analysis of variance on levels of sediment indicates that the thickness factor cuisine and a significant effect on results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for those factors can be seen in Table 4.

Table 4 Effect of cooking on levels of sediment thickness (ppm)
Table 4 shows the significant difference between the thickness of the dishes on levels of sediment, where the bold cuisine then the higher sediment levels. This occurs because increasing the thickness dishes can inhibit the separation of compounds resulting from the process to be carried away by the molasses so the content of the sediment on the crystalline sugar is high.

3.2.2 Analysis of Color
The dye contained in the sugar manufacturing process is a mixture of diverse and complex compounds (Birch & Parker, 1979). Results of analysis of variance to color sugar shows that the number of water washing significant effect and results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for those factors can be seen in Table 6.
Table 6 shows the average color of the sugar as a result of the effect of adding the wash water to wide variations seen that with increasing addition of water washing the resulting color will decrease. This is because the washing water with a temperature of 80 ° C has a hydrogen bond, so as to eliminate, isolate, and reduce the thickness of the coating syrup or reducing and separating the materials instead of sugar around the surface of the sugar crystals, PWVan der Poel [14].
Results of analysis of variance to color sugar shows that the thickness of the cuisine significant effect and the results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for those factors can be seen in Table 7.

Table 7 The influence of the thickness of the cuisine of the color (IU)
Based on observations in Table 11 it can be seen that increasing the thickness of cuisine then the color will be higher. This is because the thickness of the low cuisine has a thin layer so as to facilitate the separation and sequestration process to reduce the syrup coating on the surface of the sugar crystals compared to the thickness of the high cuisine.
Results of analysis of variance to the color of sugar indicates that the interaction between many factors washing water and thickness cuisine significant effect, whereas the results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for the interaction of these two factors can be seen in Table 8.

Table 8 The influence of the amount of washing water and thickness of the dishes on the color of sugar (IU)
Table 8 shows that the response of color give significantly different results in each treatment interaction. In a1b3 generate the highest value is 31.18 IU while on a3b1 produce its low point of 17.46 IU. The more the washing water is added and the lower the thickness of the food then the color of the sugar produced is lower, it is because the ability of water as washing solution which can dissolve through hydrogen bonds so as to release and reduce the density of the syrup layer attached to the sugar crystals, while the thickness of the lower cooking will form a thin layer of the wall so that all the sugar crystals can be reached by water washing compared to the thickness of the high cuisine.

3.2.3 Analysis Yield
The yield measurements intended to determine the highest yield of the major treatment of the sugar refining process the large amount of washing water is added and the thickness of the cuisine. Results of analysis of variance to the yield of sugar produced shows that the amount of washing water and a significant effect on the results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for those factors can be seen in Table 9.
In Table 9 shows the real difference to the amount of washing water treatment on the yield of sugar with the highest yield is 63.83% and the lowest rate is 61.92%. The higher the washing water is added it will result in a low yield. The amount of washing water in a separate dish of crystal and molasesnya minimum must be controlled to avoid dissolving the sugar crystals that may affect the yield generated.
Results of analysis of variance to the yield of sugar produced shows that the thickness of the cuisine and the significant effect on results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for those factors can be seen in Table 10.

Table 10 The influence of the thickness of the dishes on the sugar yield (%)
Table 10 shows the significant difference between the treatment of cuisine thickness factor in the yield of sugar with the highest score is 65.99% and the lowest value of 59.81%. From the findings, it seemed that the thicker the food it produces high rendemen, this is the case because, according to [14], in the process of cooking the high centrifugal thickness can prevent the dissolution of the sugar crystals and molasses thus increasing the amount of the resulting value will be high yield.
Results of analysis of variance to the yield of sugar produced showed that the interaction between many factors dish washing water and thickness of no real effect, for the results of the interaction of both factors. The yield from the interaction between the amount of washing water and thickness of the dishes that give no real effect, so it can be said that the interaction of these two factors do not affect rendemen sugar. It is suspected because of the high ash content in the food and cause food to be mellasegenik (easy to form a molasses) resulting in the loss of sugar in the molasses [5].

3.2.4 Analysis of Sucrose Levels
Sugar sucrose concentration in determining the quality of sugar produced. Results of analysis of variance to the sucrose concentration shows that the number of water washing significant effect and results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for those factors can be seen in Table 11.

Table 11 The influence of the number of water washing against the sucrose content (%)
Based on Table 11 shows the average levels of sucrose due to the effect of washing water, it appears that the increasing addition of water washing the sucrose levels will increase. This is because the water washing discount hydrogen bonds so that it can dissolve some compounds. While the sucrose content of dry matter per cent will be increased due to a number of substances instead of sugar is reduced so that the sugar content of dry matter of not less [3].
Results of analysis of variance to the sucrose concentration shows that the thickness of the cuisine significant effect and the results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for those factors can be seen in Table 12.

Table 12 The influence of the thickness of the cuisine of the sucrose content (%)
Table 12 shows the average thickness of the sucrose concentration due to treatment with a range of cuisine from 99.01 to 98.16%. It can be seen that increasing the thickness of the dishes the levels of sucrose produced the lower, This is because the thickness of the dishes on the appliance centrifugal separation process related to the ability of absorption and elimination of excess syrup on the surface of the sugar crystals.
Results of analysis of variance to the sucrose concentration showed that the interaction between many factors washing water and thickness cuisine significant effect, whereas the results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for the interaction of these two factors can be seen in Table 13.

Table 13 shows that the levels of sucrose give significantly different results in each treatment interaction. Sucrose sugar levels due to many interactions influence the washing water and thickness of the dishes ranged 98,01- 99.15. This increase is limited, with the higher levels of sucrose sugar then the increase is vanishingly small. Visible seen that the interaction between the number of washing water increasing and decreasing the thickness of the cuisine then sucrose concentration increased. This is due to increased levels of sucrose with the interaction of these two factors are mainly suspected because of the reduction in dry matter content of sucrose instead of sugar so that dry materials will rise.

3.2.5 Analysis of Sugar Crystals Size
The size of sugar cubes crystals have a significant relationship with the ease of storage and thus determines the quality of the resulting sugar crystal [3]
Results of analysis of variance to the size of the sugar crystals shows that the amount of washing water and a significant effect on the results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for the interaction of both factors can be seen in Table 14.

Table 14 shows that increasing the addition of washing water, the size of the smaller sugar crystals. This is because during the process of separation of cooking into a crystalline sugar and molasses with a speed of 1200 rpm with the addition of washing water are increasingly unavoidable occurrence dissolving sugar crystals, so the addition of the amount of washing water in the separation process should be regulated minimum.
Results of analysis of variance to the sucrose concentration shows that the thickness of the cuisine significant effect and the results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for those factors can be seen in Table 15.
Based on observations in Table 15 it can be seen that with increasing thickness cuisine then the higher sugar crystal size. It so happens because the thickness of the high cuisine can protect the inner layer is formed on the wall dishes screen compared with a low thickness.
Results of analysis of variance to the sucrose concentration showed that the interaction between many factors washing water and thickness cuisine significant effect, whereas the results of a further test analysis with Duncan’s multiple range test (α = 0.05) for the interaction of these two factors can be seen in Table 16.

Table 16. Many interaction effects of washing water and thickness of the food to the size of sugar crystals (mm)
Based on Table 16 shows that the response of the size of the sugar crystals give significantly different results in each treatment. many interactions washing water and thickness of the dishes produce sugar crystal size in the range between 0.456 to 0.690 mm, while the size of the sugar crystals have been formed in the process of crystallization with a size of 0.4 to 0.5 mm. It is thought the solubilization and the increase in sugar crystals. According to [12], when sucrose is dissolved in water or when a concentrated sugar solution is diluted with water it shrinks in volume.
According to [9], the increase in the size of the crystals in the process of centrifugal separation can occur when a clot each other between the sugar crystals (conglomerates). While the conglomerate causes sugar crystals become hygroscopic [6].
Based on Table 17 shows the test result data of scoring on the main study sample the best sugar with the greatest value is the treatment a2b1 and a3b1, ie the amount of washing water and thickness of the dishes (1.04%; 2 cm) and (1.49%; 2 cm). Because the number of water treatment a2b1 washers use less than the sample treatment a2b1 a3b1 thus selected as the best sample. Production Process of refined sugar in the Main Research in Annex 2.

IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1 Conclusion
Based on the research that has been done, it can be concluded as follows:
a. Preliminary research with selected dosing lime milk lime milk dosage of 6.5% v / v.
b. Factors amount of washing water to give effect to the quality of sugar in response to sediment, color, yield, sucrose content and size of the sugar crystals.
c. Factors thickness cuisine influence on the quality of sugar in response to sediment, color, yield, sucrose content and size of the sugar crystals.
d. The interaction between the amount of washing water and thickness of the dishes give effect to the quality of sugar in color response, sucrose concentration and the size of the sugar crystals.
e. Factors amount of washing water gives a real difference to the levels of sediment, low sediment levels indicated by a3 treatment (1.49%) is 6.72 ppm. While the cuisine thickness factor provides a real difference to the levels of sediment, sediment levels indicated by b1 treatment (2 cm) is 3.39 ppm.
f. Factor the number of water washing significant effect on the color of the sugar, the lowest color indicated by a3 treatment (1.49%) is 23.19 IU. Factors thickness cuisine significant effect on the color of the sugar, the lowest color indicated by b1 treatment (2 cm) is 19.88 IU. While the interaction between the amount of washing water and thickness of the dishes give a real difference to the color of the sugar, the lowest color shown by the treatment a3b1 (1.49% of washing water and thickness of 2 cm dish) is 17.46 IU.
g. Factors amount of washing water gives a real difference to the yield of sugar, the highest sugar yield to factor the amount of washing water is indicated by a1 treatment (0.58%) is 63.83%. While the cuisine thickness factor provides a real difference to the yield of sugar, the highest sugar yield was shown by treatment b3 (4 cm) is 65.99%.
h. Factor the number of water washing significant effect on levels of sucrose, high sucrose content indicated by a3 treatment (1.49%) is 98.76%. Factors thickness cuisine significant effect on levels of sucrose, high sucrose content indicated by b1 treatment (2 cm) is 99.01%. While the interaction between the amount of washing water and thickness of the dishes give a real difference to the levels of sucrose, high sucrose concentration is shown by the treatment a3b1 (1.49% of washing water and thickness of 2 cm dish), ie 99.15%.
i. Factors amount of washing water gives a real impact on the size of the sugar crystals, sugar crystals smallest size indicated on the treatment a3 (1.49%) is 0.555 mm. Factors thickness cuisine significant effect on the size of the sugar crystals, sugar crystals the size indicated by b1 treatment (2 cm) that is 0,488 mm. While the interaction between the amount of washing water and thickness of the dishes give a real difference to the size of the sugar crystals, sugar crystals the size of the smallest is shown by the treatment a3b1 (1.49% of washing water and thickness of 2 cm dish) is 0.456 mm.
j. Best sample by sample selection scoring best with the test method is a sample a2b1 (1.04% of washing water and thickness of 2 cm dish).

4.2 Recommendations
a. Further studies regarding the use of purification material other than milk of lime (Ca (OH) 2, for example PAC (Poly Aluminum Cloride) to be developed as an alternative material in the refining process of refined sugar.
b. Further studies regarding the use of this type of cuisine (massecuite) to another.