Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: January, 2020
Olajide Ilesanmi Olusola
Department of Educational Management and Business Studies, Faculty of Education
Journal Full Text PDF: Secondary Educational System and Sustainable Development Goals’ Attainment Toward Vision 2030.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) is laudable and timely. Nonetheless, attainment of a sizable number of its goals might be a mirage for Nigeria. This is because; education which is considered as a veritable instrument to achieve some other goals of sustainable development has not been taken serious by the successive government in Nigeria. The study therefore, analyses the concept of the sustainable development; examines the significance of education to human survival; evaluates the capacity of Nigeria’s education in achieving the Five ‘Ps’ of SDGs; and determines the extent to which Nigeria can fulfil SDG’s educational goals. The study which relies on secondary source of data revealed that, education (SDG4) is a requirement for the transformation of societies; Nigeria’s type of education cannot serve as propelling mechanism for the realisation of the 5 P’s – ‘People’, ‘Planet’, ‘Prosperity’, ‘Peace’ and ‘Partnership’. The country’s population had been made to become a burden rather than an asset; the earthly planet of the nation is not protected but faced with – oil spills; biodiversity; desertification among others; many children still not have access to education which is a pathway to prosperity; only 1 % per cent of Nigerians owned 99% of the nation’s wealth; Nigerian’s state has continued to wallowing in different crises; most of the cases of conflicts in different parts of Nigeria might have been averted if its youths are well educated and have something doing for a living; and Nigeria is an important political and economic partner to many countries across the world. The study concluded that, education is a requirement for all-round transformation of the people and societies, its neglect through poor funding, outdated curriculum and poor policy portend danger to sustainable development of a rapid population growing Nigeria.
Keywords: Educational System, Sustainable Development, Millennium Development Goals, People, Planet, Prosperity, Peace and Partnership.
One of the far reaching decisions made by the United Nations (UN) in 2015 was the adoption of the resolution of the agenda for Sustainable Development made by its General Assembly comprising 150 Heads of State and Government and Representatives. The resolution is expected to tackle the menace of poverty, scourge of insecurity in the planet, and pave way for peoples’ prosperity by the year 2030. This was with the view of stimulating collective action toward addressing major problems of hunger, poverty, insecurity among other problems confronting the people across the globe.
The adopted 17 goals under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) can be seen as a step to overhaul the deficiency of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s). This is because; the MDG’s failed in many countries to adequately achieve many of its set goals for development. One major area where the MDG’s has failed was education, especially in most African countries. This deficit is even acknowledged by the UN in one of its reports. The UN lamented regarding the deficit of implementation of the goals set for educational development in the SDG’s programmes. According to the UN (2019).
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The world failed to meet the Millennium Development Goal of achieving universal primary education by 2015. In the latest year for which data are available, 59 million children of primary-school age were out of school. Estimates show that, among those 59 million children, 1 in 5 of those children had dropped out and recent trends suggest that 2 in 5 of out-of-school children will never set foot in a classroom. The Sustainable Development Goals clearly recognize that this gap must be closed.Thus, the deficiency noticed in the MDG’s necessitated the flag-up of the current programme by the UN. The new programme which is tagged ‘The Sustainable Development Goals’ have seventeen (17) developmental goals to achieve.
Out of these ‘new developmental goals’, ‘Education Sustainable Development Goal’ is listed as goal number 4, and is tagged, ‘quality education’. It comes after ‘No Poverty’, ‘Zero Hunger’ and ‘Good Health and Well-being’; in that order. The positioning of education on item number 4 of the seventeen programmes is not unconnected with its importance. Education is ‘the key that will allow many other Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to be achieved’ (UN, 2019). Such that, when people are well-educated, they are not only freeing themselves from the shackle of poverty, but, are empowered to function effectively anywhere they find themselves, as well as, live a healthier and sustainable lives. Besides, education goes a long way to foster tolerance among diverse people, and thereby, enhances more peaceful societies (UN, 2019). There is no disputing the fact that, the UN SDG’s Agenda is laudable and timely, this notwithstanding, attainment of a sizable number of these goals by Nigeria might be a mirage. This is because, Nigeria is a developing nation and in actual sense of it, Nigeria has not started development process, when compare with some of its contemporary nations who got independence in the 1960s. Therefore, where is the development that Nigeria wants to sustain?
In view of the foregoing, the study analyses the concept of the sustainable development, examines the significance of education to human survival, evaluates the capacity of Nigeria’s education in the achievement of the Five ‘Ps’ of SDGs, and determines the extent to which Nigeria can go at fulfilling set educational goals of SDGs.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study therefore, provide the following questions:
a. What are the concept of the sustainable development?
b. What is the significance of education to human survival?
c. What is the capacity of Nigeria’s education in achieving the Five ‘Ps’ of SDGs?
d. What is the extent to which Nigeria can fulfil SDG’s educational goals?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study provides the following objectives:
a. Analyses the concept of the sustainable development,
b. Examines the significance of education to human survival,
c. Evaluates the capacity of Nigeria’s education in the achievement of the Five ‘Ps’ of SDGs,
d. Determines the extent to which Nigeria can go at fulfilling set educational goals of SDGs.
1.4 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
The hypotheses are hereby stated in null forms below:
H01: there is no significant in the concept of the sustainable development
H02: there is no significant in examine the education to human survival in Nigeria
H03: there is no significant in evaluating the capacity of Nigeria’s education in the achievement of the Five ‘Ps’ of SDGs
H04: there is no significant effect to determine the extent to which Nigeria can go at fulfilling set educational goals of SDGs
2. LITERATURE REVIEWS
2.1 SUSTAINABLE AND DEVELOPMENT
A Conceptual Clarification, Sustainable Development Goals is a United Nations effort at improving development for all communities in every country. The programme is planned to bring governments, aid organizations, foundations and NGOs together to solve basic global problems.
It is obvious that there is no single unanimous definition of the concept of “sustainable development”. The reason for this is not far-fetched from the fact that, the concept covers a variety of scopes. Therefore, different institutions, organisations and scholars alike perceive the concept according to those areas they expected the scope to cover, as well as their professional backgrounds.
The UN General Assembly (1987), for instance, defines sustainable development as type of “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. To the World Bank (1992), sustainable development is continuous and accelerated, human and economic development, which will in turn bring about improve environmental conditions. In other words, sustainable development to the World Bank is “development that continues” (World Development, 1992). A further comprehensive definition that corroborates the World Bank’s position on the concept is the one offered by the Rio de Janeiro Declaration on Environment and Development of 1992. According to the ‘Declaration’, sustainable development is a continuous development of the society in order to satisfy peoples’ present and future needs, through judicious management and utilisation of natural resources. To Ciegis, Ramanauskiene, and Martinkus (2009), sustainable development embraces economic, environmental, and social developments, which they described as “interrelated and complementary”. The overall goal of sustainable development according to Emas (2015) is for long-term stability of the economy and environment; which could only be achieved through a proactive governmental decision. Flint (2013) perceives sustainable development as a programme of action developed from ‘the consequences of past exploitation, and from scientific demonstration of the long-term harm inflicted on environmental and social capital’. In their study, Strange and Bayley (2008) see sustainable development as a development that benefits the populace of diverse categories. They are of the opinion, that whenever developmental policies are being planned, the planners should take into consideration its effect on people and the society.
The concept of sustainable development could equally be viewed from – economic; environmental and social perspectives (Harris, 2000). From economic point, a sustainable economic system must as matter of necessity able to produce goods and services continually. The system must also be able to improve peoples’ standard of living, creating jobs and reduce if not totally eradicate poverty, and remove all form of imbalances in the society. From the angle of environment, a sustainable environmental system must sustain a stable resource base; avoid exploitation degradation; pollution and other environmental hazards that are detriment to peoples’ lives. In a social sustainable system, peoples must be able to have equal opportunity. Put differently, there must be fairness in distribution of state wealth and resources; peoples should freely participate in political issues and affairs. In addition, political accountability manifesting in the areas of state development i.e. adequate provision of social services must also be institutionalized (Harris, 2000).
Arising from the foregoing, sustainable development can thus be seen as, the execution of policies and programmes that are of immense economic benefits which will meet the present needs of the populace, without compromising their future needs. Such needs should be centered on development, which in turn will bring about improvements in the quality of human lives. Put differently, such needs should tend toward ensuring dignified living conditions, equal opportunities, respect of human rights and maintaining the principle of fairness that will endure.
2.2 EDUCATION, HUMAN SURVIVAL AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
The significance of SDG4 lies in the fact that, quality education is a requirement for the transformation of societies. It also through education that knowledge can be inculcated into the people, especially, on how to protect and free themselves from hazards, poverty, labour, exploitation and disease. In addition, education is about acquiring necessary skills, as well as gaining confidence to reach ones full potential (Hepburn, n.d.). Therefore, SDG4 is a call on the world to “ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. SDG4 which has ‘seven targets and three means of implementation’, came about through a thorough deliberation and consultation of Member-States, as well as input and participation from civil society, teachers, unions, bilateral agencies, regional organisations, the private sector as well as research institutes.
Education becomes priority in SDGs achievement given the fact that, it is a basic human right (Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948; UNESCO, 2019) and the foundation on which to build peace, and drive sustainable development. Besides, each of the goals of the sustainable development cannot be achieved solely without education. Many of these goals are intertwined; or overlapped, yet none of the goals and can be handled without recourse to education whether at the level of policy making or implementation. Thus, quality education remains sine qua non to all the programmes of sustainable development.
The assertion made by the Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova led credence to the importance of education to Sustainable Development Goals. According to him “A fundamental change is needed in the way we think about education’s role in global development, because it has a catalytic impact on the well-being of individuals and the future of our planet…Now, more than ever, education has a responsibility to be in gear with 21st century challenges and aspirations, and foster the right types of values and skills that will lead to sustainable and inclusive growth, and peaceful living together (Bokova, cited in UNESCO, 2019).
Thus, in order to have a sustainable world, and to effectively implement other SDGs programmes, it require the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes which can only come through education. Education should be tailored toward the promotion of economic growth and people advancement. ‘The now well-established approach of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) empowers learners to take informed decisions and responsible actions for environmental integrity, economic viability and a just society for present and future generations’(UNESCO, 2019a).
It is because of the relevance of education to the accomplishment of the SDGs programmes vis-à-vis goals on health; growth and employment; sustainable consumption and production; and climate change among others, that the UN placed on the UNESCO power to lead; and coordinate the Education 2030 Agenda. This equally necessitated the ‘Incheon Declaration’ which is specifically committed to the attainment of quality Education by 2030.
While it is true that enrolment in school in Nigeria has increased in the last few years, there are still a great number of children who are out-of-school. According to UNICEF (2015), the year that marked the expiration of the deadline set aside for the achievement of the MDGs, forty per cent of Nigerian children, between the ages of 6 and 11 were unable to attend primary school. ‘Despite a significant increase in net enrolment rates in recent years, it is estimated that about 4.7 million children of primary school age are still not in school’ (UNICEF, 2015).
This could be seen as a wrong signal to the SDGs accomplishment, especially that education is needed to achieve some other goals of sustainable development. Similarly, given the fact that education facilitates peace, most of the cases of conflicts in different parts of Nigeria might be averted if the youths in the areas are well educated and have something doing for a living. Thus, most of the escalated conflicts can be linked to availability of illiterate and idle people who can be easily recruited into different insurgents groups. Suffice to say that, a large per cent of out-school-children and idle population in Nigeria are ready-made instrument of conflicts. These groups of people are ever-ready to constitute nuisance to the nation peace and development for a paltry sum of money from the politicians, ethnic leaders and the likes, for their selfish agenda and pecuniary gains.
2.3 Nigeria Education and Five ‘Ps’ of SDGs
The five P’s according to the UN are – ‘People’, ‘Planet’, ‘Prosperity’, ‘Peace’ and ‘Partnership’. The UN is of the opinion that education is a veritable instrument in achieving the five P’s. UN believes that, education is the only propeller that can guarantee its success. Viewing the 5 P’s, one will notice that it is centred on the
People. Put differently, people remain a key factor to be reckoned with among the 5 P’s. This is because, it is the people that live in the planet; people need to prosper within the planet; people need peace in order for them to prosper; they equally need to be in partnership. Partnership in this sense is about cooperation, that is, people involving in a mutual relation, in order to achieve peace and prosperity.
Flowing from the foregoing, it can be deduced that, the main agenda of 5 P’s is that, the ‘people’, within the ‘planet’ earth need to ‘partner’ for ‘peace’ for them to ‘prosper’. In other words, all the 5 P’s are to be integrated to achieve sustainable nations in particular and sustainable world in general.
While the 5 P’s realization is attached to education, can Nigeria’s educational policy and system bring about the synergy or combined effects among ‘People’, ‘Planet’, ‘Prosperity’, ‘Peace’ and ‘Partnership’? Can Nigeria’s type of education serve as propelling mechanism for the realisation of the 5 P’s? This question is pertinent, in that, to put the nations (world) on a sustainable development path, it requires bold and transformative steps underpinned by new tools, new data, and new ways of working and new resources (OECD, n.d.). By the way, the only thing that can bring about ‘new tools, new data, new ways of working and new resources’ is education. Thus, this section will attempt to x-ray the characteristics of Nigeria, its educational system and the 5 P’s.
2.4 The Nigerian People
Nigeria belongs to the category of world being referred to as the ‘Third World’. As a member of the third world, it people cannot dissociate itself from being a third world people. At times, the nation is referred to as less develop or developing country; hence, its people are so addressed accordingly. Nigeria with the population of 192,718,549 as of Monday, September 11, 2019, (United Nations, cited in worldometers, 2019); is no doubt most populated country in Africa. Nigeria is ranked number 7th in the world in terms of population. The nation comes after China, India, United States, Indonesia, Brazil and Pakistan in that order. Thus, 1 out of every 7 black people on the planet is a Nigerian (United States Central Intelligence Agency, 2019). Lagos, Nigeria is considered as a mega-metropolis, and the world’s fourth largest city, after Mumbai, Seoul, and Jakarta respectively. The demographical pattern of Nigeria shows that its median age is 18 years. That is, children ages 18 and under constitute more that the half of all the population. With the nation’s rapidly growing population and subsequent projection, there is every tendency that Nigeria’s population may rise to 398,507,704 by 2050 (see Worldometers This has put Nigeria in a tight corner of its future survival, especially, that the population which needed to be trained with quality education have their future jeopardized with the type of education provided for them by the government. Nigeria’s educational system is suffering from neglect and gross underfunding. The resultant effect is the disconnection between the nature of education acquired and its practical application for sustainable development.
The country’s population had been made to become a burden rather than an asset.The impacts of unplanned population growth in Nigeria are felt on its people living standards, use of resources as well as environmental changes, vis-à-vis energy consumption, carbon emissions, air pollution and human congestion. Suffice to say that, unplanned population growth has the capacity to compete for the finite or limited nation’s resources. The aftermath effects are poor living standard, high level of unemployment, poverty, hunger and low access to formal education and shortage of social services and facilities.
2.5 Nigerian and the Planet of Earth
Just as the planet in which human inhabit affects man, so also man affects the planet earth. The concern of the UN about the planet is to ensure that counties all over the world engage in the process of protecting the planet. The planet is expected to be protected from degradation. This involves – ‘sustainable consumption, production, managing natural resources and taking into cognizance of managing climate change. These are essential in order to preserve the planet for the needs of the present and future generations.
In Nigeria however, the issue of environmental protection is not given appropriate attention. Some of cases of environmental neglect in Nigeria include the following:
Oil spills – In the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, oil spilling is a usual problem. It is not news that the Niger Delta is reputed to be one of the most polluted places on the planet earth. Over 70 per cent of the people of the area who are fishermen and farmers are in poverty; as they cannot effectively practise any of these activities. The consequence of oil spills is environmental pollution which is hazardous to human health.
Biodiversity – Nigeria has performed poorly in the area of preserving nature and natural environment. The nation has continued to fail in the area of forest management. Presently, about 80 per cent of Nigeria’s natural forests have been desecrated, defiled and vandalized. This was due to human activities of logging, agriculture, city expansion, expansion of roads and building of industries. Consequently, those essential plants and animals that are supposed to be preserved have been seriously tampered with. The mismanagement of erosion has equally led to increase in land infertility; and the importation of food has grossly increased in the recent time (Norwegian Society for the Conservation of Nature, n.d.).
Desertification is another major problem in Nigeria. These include – barren, waterless and treeless lands. This is well pronounced in some parts of northern Nigeria; where Sahara desert has eaten deep into the once fertile land. Thus, desertification could be seen as encroachment of desert on land that was once fertile. It can lead to terrible famine, diseases, destruction of crops, livestock and even man; if proper attention is not paid to the problem. Despite the continued increase in the nation’s population, the governmental effort at taming the case of desertification is still low.
2.6 Nigerian People and ‘Prosperity’
All human beings are expected to enjoy prosperous and fulfilling lives and that economic, social and technological progress occurs in harmony with nature.One of the basic problems to prosperity in Nigeria is education. Education in this sense is quality and equity. Quality education in this context is referred to all round education; that can bring about transformational change which will in turn be of immense benefits to the people and society. Equity on the other hand means that education should not be discriminatory. Everyone must be given opportunity to have access to quality education irrespective of his or her gender, ethnicity, and religious among other reasons. If every person has access to quality education, such a person has indirectly been given a tool to navigate and find his or her level in world. Sadly, enough, the primary school enrolment is still low. On children education, Nigeria has continued to break world record as a nation with highest number of out-of-school children in the world. As at today, Nigeria has 10.5 million out-of-school children
Another challenge against prosperity in Nigeria has to do with poor governance system and corruption. Only 1 % per cent of Nigerians owned 99% of the nation’s wealth. This is seen as a fall out from lack of equal opportunity to education, as some of the few ‘well to do’ who have access to quality education has now found their ways to the centre of power and form a clique to run the country as their personal properties. All these are clog to the realization of SDG’s in Nigeria.
2.7 Nigerian People and ‘Peace’
Nigerian’s state has continued to wallowing in different crises. Different insurgents group have continued to emerge in different parts of the country and constituted themselves thorn in the flesh of Nigerians. For instance, the activities of Boko Haram in northern parts of Nigeria have led to wanton destruction of lives and properties and also created fear in the heart of other Nigerians in other parts of the nation.
Regarding the Boko Haram, Governor Kashim Shettima of Borno State of Nigeria gave the magnitude of human and material loss as a result of Boko Haram activities in the Northern part of Nigeria. According to the Governor, while delivering a paper titled “Managing the Boko Haram Crisis in Borno State, Experiences and Lessons for a Multi-party, Multi-ethnic and Multi-religious Nigeria”: The Boko Haram insurgency has led to deaths of almost 100,000 persons going by the estimates of our community leaders over the years…Two million, one hundred and fourteen thousand (2,114,000) persons have become internally displaced as at December of 2016 (Premium Times, February 13, 2019).
In addition to the above was the emergence of militant groups in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, known as the Niger Delta Avengers (NDA). The NDA has continued to cause economic and environmental disruption which has continued to tell on the nation’s economic. Perhaps, the NDA activity is one of the major reasons for Nigeria’s economic recession. While poor governance was listed as one the reasons for insurgents activities, this plus monumental corruption among public officials have led to a situation where the nation went into borrowing in order to finance the country. Consequently, the country’s debt as at June 30, 2019 has risen to N19.16 trillion (The Debt Management Office Nigeria
Thus, peace in Nigeria seems fragile, frequently breaks, and is affecting the nation’s development, as where there is no peace, there can be no development. Besides, the resources expended to maintain peace vis-à-vis combating different insurgents activities could have been used to provide developmental facilities. Since Nigerian people are living in insecure environment, and in debt, it will be difficult if not impossible for Nigeria to partake meaningfully in SDGs programmes and activities.
2.8 Nigerian People and ‘Partnership’
There is no disputing the fact that Nigeria is an important political and economic partner for many countries across the world. The peculiar characteristics of the country has endear her; a special position in the world. For instance, the nation is reputed to be ranked among the first ten in terms of population in the world with an estimate of about 200 million people. In the area of economy, Nigeria is serving as a readymade market for the finish products from different nations of the world. It was recorded that, Nigeria on yearly basis is importing goods worth over $5.5 billion from the United Statealone (Ademola-Adelehin and Smith, 2019).
On peacekeeping, Nigeria has continued to partner with other nations in maintaining peace and stability. Nigeria has not only involved in various peacekeeping processes in the continent, but has also participated in peacekeeping beyond the continent of Africa. Nigeria involvement in peacekeeping across the world notwithstanding, she has continue to witness series of violent and conflicts in her domain, while many of the countries she has assisted in making peace in their domain put up I don’t care attitude. It was as a result of this that the trio of Dauda,
Bin Ahmad, and Keling lamented thus The Nigeria’s big brother role in Africa has not been appreciated by the beneficiaries. Nigeria has often been paid back with ingratitude by African countries to which it had been a benefactor (Dauda, Bin Ahmad, and Keling, 2019:1).
The problem posed by different insurgents’ activities has negative impacts for nations’ businesses, international security, and the stability of the Africa continent, as the crises have the capacity of expanding to Nigeria’s neighbouring countries.
3. Method of Data Collection
3.1 Sources of Data
Data used in this study were sourced from the statistical bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria, as well as the World Bank Development Indicator Database.
3.2 Evaluation Procedure
The process of evaluation involves deciding whether or not the estimates are theoretically meaningful and statistically satisfactory. As laudable as the goals number 4 of the SDGs is, with its impressive specific targets, one will needs to ask of the extent at which Nigeria can go at meeting these targets. The question is pertinent considering myriad of challenges facing educational sector in Nigeria. Some of these challenges are as listed:
4. Result of Analysis
4.1 Underfunding of Educational System
Education is the master key that can unlock a country’s potentials for sustainable development. Therefore, there is no way a nation can develop without investing massively in its education system. However, funding has been one of the major banes to educational development in Nigeria. Successive Government has continued to fail in committing adequate resources towards educational development. The yearly budget for education has always fallen short of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) specification. The UNESCO has continued to emphasise that, each nation should allocate 26% of its annual budget to education, if any meaningful educational development could be achieved. In 2019, Nigeria budgeted a paltry 6% of total budget to educational sector. It is on record that the government only allocated the sum of N448.01 billion out of its total N7.30 trillion to education
Since the paltry sum from the budget cannot sustain education sector in Nigeria, one is put to wonder on how the nation would pursue Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
4.2 Out-dated Educational Curriculum
Curriculum could be seen a sequence or academic order through which a set goal of education is achieved. A curriculum of education is a systematic planned of learning activities and experiences in order to achieve behavioural changes. It has been observed that the educational curriculum of Nigeria could not produce expected results for the actualisation of the SDGs. Schools curricular in Nigeria are out-dated which cannot be compared to curricular of education in other parts of the world. For Nigeria to be able to achieve SDGs, its educational curriculum needs to be updated. This is aptly supported by the National Planning Commission (2005) cited in Agbionu, Joseph and Ifeyinwa (2016:2), according to her:The educational system is dysfunctional, as graduates of many institutions cannot meet the needs of the country…Wide disparities persist in educational standard and learning achievements. The system emphasizes theoretical knowledge…School curricula need urgent review to make it relevant and practice oriented.
The problem with the Nigeria’s education curricular is that it is prepared with the exclusion of the teachers who are the major stakeholder in the areas of curricular implementation. In addition, is the apparent rigidity of the curricular, or curricular that remain static and not changing or updated as society continue to develop. Besides, the problem of out-dated curricular is out-dated equipment of teaching-learning experience. For instance, teachers need to be informed of the goings in the world especially in the areas of their specialization. Similarly, teachers need to be ICT compliant in order to be able to flow along with their counterparts across the world. However, it is saddening that many public schools in Nigeria are ill equipped to meet up with the world standard in the area of ICT and other teaching learning facilities. Thus, there is a need for improvement in the areas of infrastructural facilities in the nation’s schools such as modern educational gadgets like computers, modern instructional materials and packages. There is no way educational goals could achieved without adequate and modern infrastructural facilities and so the SDGs.
4.3 Low Morale and Lack of Motivation for Teachers
One more issue that will constitute a great hindrance to the actualisation of SDGs in Nigeria is the low morale and demotivation of teachers. This is manifesting in the undue treatment of teachers a major actor in the educational sector. Tsang and Liu (2016) are of opinion that teacher demoralisation and demotivation occur when teachers are being subjected to negative emotional experiences. These negative experiences no doubt do affect teachers’ well-being, consequently, affect quality of teaching. Excess workload; low remuneration; unpaid salaries and allowances; lack of prospects for promotion; poor work environment, are among sources of job dissatisfaction and demotivation of teachers in Nigeria.
For instance, in many public schools in Nigeria, teachers are subjected to excess workload. Owing to insufficient teachers in the schools, few teachers on ground were made to work more. One thing that is always bringing about low morale on the teachers is the fact that their salaries and allowances are not paid as and when due. Many states governments owe their teachers up to ten months salaries and allowances while those who have worked and retired have their entitlements withheld. Besides, nobody accord them any respect. To the extent that, there are some accommodations that have tag ‘not meant for teachers’. That is, the particular house(s) in question cannot be given out for teachers for rent. Not only has that, teachers for many months worked without pay in Nigeria. Besides, their promotion is being delayed for many years. Till now, Teachers’ Salary Scale (TSS) that is teachers’ enhanced package, for teachers in the primary and secondary schools sector of education have not been implemented in many state of the federation. Thus, the school systems are been gradually destroyed, as teachers are unfulfilled, frustrated and depressed for lack of motivation and encouragement. Consequently, their output in terms of teaching-learning activities is grossly low. This has the capacity of undermining the active participation of Nigeria in the SDGs.
5. Summary and Conclusion
The United Nations adoption of the resolution of the agenda for Sustainable Development is no doubt a laudable programme. The programme is targeted towards addressing major problems of hunger, poverty, insecurity among other problems confronting the people across the globe. The SDG’s is a step to overhaul the deficiency of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s), because the MDGs failed in many countries to adequately achieve many of its set goals for development. One major area where the MDGs has failed was education, especially in most African countries. Thus, the deficiency noticed in the SDG’s necessitated the flag-up of the current programme by the UN. The new programme which is tagged ‘The Sustainable Development Goals’ have seventeen (17) developmental goals to achieve. Out of these new developmental goals, ‘Education Sustainable
Development Goal’ is listed on item number 4, and it is tagged, ‘quality education’. it is believed that a well-educated people will be able protect and free themselves from hazards, poverty, labour, exploitation and disease. Besides, one can acquire necessary skills, as well as gaining confidence to reach ones full potential. That is why education is considered as a veritable instrument to achieve some other goals of sustainable development. Given the fact that education has not been taken serious by the successive government in Nigeria, some of the MDG’s goals may not be achieved by Nigeria. The study therefore concluded that, education is a requirement for all-round transformation of the people and societies, its neglect through poor funding, out-dated curriculum and poor policy portend a danger to sustainable development of a rapid population growing Nigeria.
The SGD4: How far can Nigeria Go?
The Sustainable Development goals number 4 is education, with broad target of ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and promotes lifelong learning opportunities for all by 2030. The SDG4 has seven basic targets, with three corresponding means of implementing the targets. The specific targets are :
a. By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and Goal-4 effective learning outcomes
b. By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education
c. By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university
By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship
d. By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations
e. By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy
f. By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development (Global Education Monitoring Report, 2016).
The three means of achieving the above targets are:
a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, nonviolent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all
b By 2030, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries
c By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing states (Global Education Monitoring Report, 2016).
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