Current Applications, Future Development and Challenges of Molecular Technologies in Livestock

International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 1 – 6
Date: 21 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Birhan Kassa

Birhan Kassa
Haramaya University
Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute
Andassa Livestock Research Center
Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Abstract
Biotechnologies in farm animals provides a major opportunity to overcome challenges in livestock production. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism is recently applicable molecular genetics technologies in livestock which is valuable and efficient molecular marker. In SNP, there have been numerous progresses in whole genome sequencing, in the development of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput genotyping platform. Polymorphic loci of known chromosomal location are identified, and methods to type these polymorphisms are developed and tested on individuals with relevant phenotypes, and statistical relationships are calculated. Improvement of economically important agronomic traits like yield and quality that are complicatedly inherited is still a great challenge for molecular animal breeding.

Keyword: Deoxyribonucleic acid, Genomics, Molecular Animal Breeding, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism.

1. Introduction
Animal genomics is of interest because of its importance to produce high quality food products economically and efficiently to furnish for the increasing supply demand gap all over the world. There is evidence for a rapidly increasing demand for livestock products in developing countries as a result of high population and income growth and life style changes.Genomic biotechnologies in farm animals offer a major opportunity to address shortages in agriculture production to feed the global society at large. Benefiting from the PCR techniques, the molecular markers have now become a fashionable way for the identification and characterization of animal species. In the last decades a number of marker techniques were consequently developed, in particular RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism), RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA), microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism). The presence or absence of markers allows the genotyping of individuals and populations. A very exhilarating and fast developing application of genetic markers is in the mapping of the various animal genomes.
The theoretical studies of linkage mapping, finding quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the marker assisted selection or genotype selection have been developed in the previous decade. DNA markers can be employed to make out the specific region of chromosome where genes affecting quantitative traits are located. One approach is known as Marker assisted selection (MAS) uses information about these sections of chromosomes in livestock selection programs …………

2. Literature Review
2.1. Current Applications of Molecular Genetics Technologies in Livestock
The genomics technologies in livestock present a major and foremost opportunity to address the responsibilities of agricultural production to humanity at large. Animal form a distinctive genomics resource as a result of their significant phenotypic diversity and of their population structure which make them particularly furnish for positional cloning. These are the assembly of techniques used in genetic screening to identify the precise area of interest in genome. The purpose of genomic technologies is the characterization and mapping of the locus that affected these traits of interest (Koopaei and Koshkoiyeh, 2011).
The current advancement in characterizing the genomes of animals, including the identification of large number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) make a major impact on the identification of genes and mutation underlying this phenotypic diversity including diseases susceptibility, morphology and behavior (Archibald et al., 2010). Millions of genomic DNA variation included point mutations, deletions, insertion and segmental duplications discovered through whole genome sequencing (consortium et al., 2009). Recently genomic and bioinformatics advances have also created reasonable opportunities to researchers to characterize livestock species in term of function of their genes (McCarthy et al., 2009). Genome sequencing, expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps with automated genotyping and database management are speedily becoming valuable constituents of our genomic toolbox. These technologies are used in providing assure for genome mining and gene discovery ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: Current Applications, Future Development and Challenges of Molecular Technologies in Livestock.

Perception in Improved Seed Utilization for Potato Production from Perspective of Smallholder Farmers

International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 225 – 236
Date: 23 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Beriso Bati Bukul

Beriso Bati Bukul
Department of Agricultural Economics, Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Centre
Adami Tulu, Ethiopia

Abstract
In Ethiopia, potato crop is produced in different agro-ecological zones through commercial as well as smallholder farmers both as a source of income and food. However, due to perishable nature and biological nature of production process, potato production is risky investment activities. In this context, risk perceptions play a key role in the production and investment behavior of farmers in potato production decisions. However, in Shashemene district, only limited attention has been paid to understand the producers’ risk perceptions in potato production. Therefore, in this study, analysis of the major sources of risks in potato production, on the basis of farmers’ perceptions, was conducted. For the study, Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 sample households from four sample kebeles. Primary data collected through structured questionnaire and secondary data sources were used. A Likert scale, based on farmers’ perception, was used to rank the various sources of potato production by using improved seed varieties. The mean scores results, derived based on Likert scales, indicated that attributes such as, high productivity, early maturity, quality grain/fruit, disease resistance, pest resistance and profitability were positive perception/advantage of utilization improved potato seed for potato production which take the average score of 4.5, 3.28, 4.27, 4.21, 4.18 and 4.52, respectively While, labor demanding, high seed cost and unavailability of quality seeds at the right time were some of the disadvantages. Therefore, increasing access to quality improved potato seed for farmers increases its utilization.

Keywords: Perceptions, Improved Potato Seed, Potato Production, Likert Scale, Shashemane District.

1. Introduction
Ethiopia is one of the fastest growing economies in Africa. In the last decade, the Ethiopian economy registered a growth of 11 percent per annum on average in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (MoFED, 2014) compared to 3.8 percent in the previous decades (World Bank, 2015). This growth has largely been supported by a relatively high growth in the agricultural sector. The importance of agriculture in Ethiopia is evidenced by its share in GDP (43%), its employment generation (80%), share of export (70%) and providing about 70% raw material for the industries in the country in 2012/13 (UNDP, 2013).
Despite such policies focus on the sector over the last two decades, its productivity is constrained by lack of appropriate and affordable agricultural technologies, inefficiency in production, poor infrastructure, inefficient marketing systems, land degradation, rapidly expanding population, and inaccessibility to agricultural inputs such as improved/hybrid seeds, fertilizers and agro-chemicals (Yu and Nin-Pratt, 2014).
Ethiopian diversified agro‐climatic condition makes it suitable for the production of a broad range of fruits, vegetables and herbs. The wide range of altitude, ranging from below sea level to over 3000m above sea level, gives it a wide range of agro ecological diversity ranging from humid tropics to alpine climates, where most types of vegetable crops can be successfully grown. Holders living near to urban centers largely practice vegetable farming. Most vegetables are not commonly practiced by the rural private peasant holders, hence the small volume of production recorded as well evidenced by the survey results (CSA, 2015).
Vegetable production is practiced both under rainfed and irrigation systems. The irrigated vegetable production system is increasing because of increasing commercial farms and development of small scale irrigation schemes (Baredo, 2013; cited in Bezabih et al., 2014). Ethiopia has a variety of vegetable crops grown in different agro ecological zones by small farmers, mainly as a source of income as well as food. The production of vegetables varies from cultivating a few plants in the backyards, for home consumption, to large-scale production for the domestic and home markets. Oromia National Regional State in general and West Arsi zone in particular is known by its potato production and supplying it to different market centers ………

2. Research Methodology
2.1. Description of study area
This study was conducted in Shashemene district, West Arsi zone of Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. Shashemene district is located at 250 km from Addis Ababa towards South direction. The district is located at 7° 12′ North and 38° 36′ east having an altitude of 1600-2800 meters above sea level with a total area of 467.18 km square. The district has 37 rural kebeles and 8 sub cities. The total rural population of the district was 248,093 was 28, 306 (males 23, 627 and females 4,679) of which more than 83% depend on agriculture for their livelihood and majority of them are smallholders owning a plot of less than 0.5 hectares having featured a crop livestock mixed farming system (DOA, 2016). According to DOA, (2016) the major agro-ecologies of the district were mid-land (51.4%), high land (29.6%) and low land (19%) having clay loam soil type for highland and sandy soil for mid-land and low land soil types. The district receives an annual rainfall ranging from 800 mm to 1200 mm raining twice a year. The district has bi-modal rainfall distribution with small rains starting from March/April to May and the main rainy …….

Journal Full Text PDF: Perception in Improved Seed Utilization for Potato Production from Perspective of Smallholder Farmers (The Case of Shashemane District, West Arsi Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia).

Analysis of Head Cabbage Market Performance

International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 215 – 224
Date: 20 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Beriso Bati Bukul, Yassin Esmael Ahmed, & Asfaw Negesse Senbata

Beriso Bati Bukul, Yassin Esmael Ahmed, & Asfaw Negesse Senbata
Department of Agricultural Economics
Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension Research
Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Centre
Adami Tulu, Ethiopia

Abstract
The study analyzed market performance of head cabbage in Kofale and Kore districts with the objective of identifying actors involved in head cabbage markets and examining market performance of head cabbage. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select sample households. A total of 120 head cabbage producers, 50 traders and 50 consumers were randomly selected and interviewed using structure questionnaires and checklist. The descriptive statistics and market margin model were applied to analyze head cabbage market performance. The result of the study shows that farmers used three market outlet to sell their product. These are collectors, wholesalers and consumers. However, they earn low/little market margins from the large volume of head cabbage they sold to collectors and wholesaler compare to consumers. This is due to brokers who have the power to determine prices paid by the traders and thus extract huge marketing margins. Therefore, this study suggests that it shall be better to improve the farmers’ market margins from collectors and wholesalers by strengthening farmers-traders linkage through reducing brokers’ exploitation and solving related production and marketing problems in the study area.

Keywords: Actors, Head Cabbage, Market Margin, Market Performance, Kofele, Kore.

1. Introduction
Head cabbage belongs to a class of vegetables called Brassica, also known as cruciferous vegetables because their flowers are cross-shaped (Anonymous, 2012). It has 90% water and an excellent source of minerals, Vitamin A and C and the B vitamins. According to Anonymous, (2012) head cabbages are mostly produced for and marketed through informal market. Head cabbage grows best under cool conditions. Ethiopia is one of the top five African countries producing head cabbage (Anonymous, 2012). Head cabbage is a major economically important vegetable in Ethiopia (Bezabih et al., 2015). Agricultural marketing is conducted mainly through the informal sector through traders. Poor marketing services, facilities and transport in rural areas affects agricultural commercialization (MoARD, 2010). The Ethiopian government attempts to promote production and marketing of economically important vegetables to increase competitiveness in domestic, regional, national, and international markets through improving market performance (MoARD, 2010).
Head cabbage is widely produced in Kofele and Kore districts due to its suitable environmental condition (DoA, 2013). It is also one of the cash crop vegetable produced and marketed by farmers in the districts. However, market incentive gained from head cabbage products supply to market is very low due to poor market performance, in adequate market infrastructure, facilities, and perishability of the product (DoA, 2013). Poor performance of market chain (that is if market performance is not efficient, sufficient and price signal arising at consumers level are not adequately transformed to farmers) places farmers at a disadvantage (Bosena et al, 2011). Therefore, this study was initiated to identify and indicate factors affecting head cabbage markets and improve output market performance in the study areas.
Objectives of the Study;
a. To identify actors involved in head cabbage markets;
b. To examine market performance of head cabbage in the study areas

2. Research Methodologies
2.1. Description of the study Area
This study was conducted in Kofale and Kore districts, West Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Kofale and Kore are located at 275 kilometer and 305 kilometer from capital Addis Ababa towards south Ethiopia. The major agro-ecology of Kofale and Kore districts are high land which cover 90% and 88% respectively (DoA, 2013). The annually rain fall and temperature received by both districts are 1500 mm-2100 mm and 1200mm-1800mm, 5oC-17oC, and 19oC-23oC respectively. Kofale and Kore districts are found within the attitude of 2400-2700 and 2650-3000 meter above sea level having clay loam soil which is the dominant soil type in the areas (DoA, 2013). The districts have bi-modal rainfall distribution which the main rainy season starts from June to September/October and short rainy season from March/April to May (DoA, 2013). The districts feature a crop-livestock mixed farming system. Barley, Potato, Wheat, Maize, Enset, Cabbage and Head Cabbage are widely grown in the districts both for food and marketing purposes. Head cabbage is a major cash crop vegetable produced in is the districts to earn income ……..

Journal Full Text: Analysis of Head Cabbage Market Performance (Case Study in Kofele and Kore Districts, Oromia Region, Ethiopia).

An Effort to Institutionalize Farmers Research Group (FRG) Through Approach Training for Researchers in Oromia National Regional State: An Experience of Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center

International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 205 – 214
Date: 14 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Beriso Bati, Tesfaye Gemachu, Kedir Wako

Beriso Bati, Tesfaye Gemachu, & Kedir Wako
Department of Agricultural Economics, Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Centre, Adami Tulu, Ethiopia.
Department of Agricultural Extensions, Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Centre, Adami Tulu, Ethiopia.
Director of Coffee and Tea, Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Ethiopia.

Abstract
Based on the achievements of its previous project between 2004 and 2009, “Project for Enhancing development and dissemination of Agricultural Innovations through farmers group FRGs (FRG II)” was implemented from 2010 to 2015. The main objective of the project was to institutionalize the Farmer Research Group (FRG) approach in the national agricultural research system. Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center was mandated to host trainings on the FRG approach for researchers under Oromia Agricultural Research Institute and agricultural faculties of the universities in Oromia Regional State. Accordingly, trainings were given on various topics related to the approach for more than 70 researchers from 16 research centers and 7 universities in three phases (three times). The methods used in the training were practical experience presentation (sharing), presentations by the trainees, Visit and practice with FRG farmers and Group works on training topics. Evaluation of the training by the participants after sessions show that they understood principles and practices of the FRG approach, use the approach for future research activities, can also be resource person to train other researchers and can modify the guideline based on their situations. Challenges during the application of the approach under the practical farmers’ situation were discussed and experiences were shared on how to overcome or minimize the problems encountered.

Keywords: Farmers Research Group (FRG), Training, Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center.

1. Introduction
Agricultural research has evolved through different approaches to improve quality and efficiency of technology generation and adoption by the end users to bring about food security and economic development to Ethiopia, where its population has been rapidly increasing. Based on the nature and methods, research can be divided into conventional and participatory researches. The participatory research is a type of research where different stakeholders take part in its process from problem identification through the stages of research activities. Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, established in 1968, is located in the mid rift valley of Ethiopia about 170km south of Addis Ababa at 700 9′ N Latitude and 380 7′ E Longitude with the altitude of 1650 msl. The Climatic condition of the area is hot and dry with Annual average (?) minimum and max temp 24.2 & 30.5⁰c, Annual average (?) min temp 10.4 & 16.8⁰c respectively and Average Annual RF 700mm/Yr. The center has a total area of 1100ha where 870ha is allocated for range land; 329ha is used for research facilities including 99ha for Boer goat researches.
The center conducts research organized under four research processes namely Livestock, Natural Resources, Crop and Socioeconomics Research. Multi-disciplinary team approach in collaboration and partnership with different stakeholders is encouraged. The stakeholders and collaborators include Regional and National Research centers, International Research organizations and project donors such as JICA, ICRISAT, ASARECA, World Bank, CYMMIT etc., NGOs, higher learning Institutions, Agri. Development Offices and administrations at different levels, Farmers and private sectors.
FRG approach is a research approach whereby multidisciplinary team of researchers, extension workers, group of farmers and other pertinent actors jointly conduct research on farmers’ field on selected topics based on farmers’ needs (Bedru et al. 2009). It is a development oriented participatory action research approach. The “Guideline To Participatory Agricultural Research Through Farmers Research Group for Agricultural Researchers” was developed during the previous project and FRG II was implemented between 2010-2015 for institutionalizing the approach in the Ethiopian agricultural research system ………

2. Training Methods
Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center (ATARC) was given with a responsibility to provide FRG approach trainings for sixteen agricultural research centers and seven universities across Oromia to their researchers. The institutions were grouped into two groups and given the training in 3 Phases: basic, practical and compile progress. During the training session, there is experience presentation by the participants, Presentation on concepts of FRG research principles, key issues to conduct FRG research activities effectively and efficiently, visit to FRG farmers and group work ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: An Effort to Institutionalize Farmers Research Group (FRG) Through Approach Training for Researchers in Oromia National Regional State: An Experience of Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center.

Effect of Soil and Water Conservation Measures on Land Degradation Under Climate Change Scenario in Ethiopia: A Review of Work

International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 189 – 204
Date: 13 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Ayub Jelde Keta

Ayub Jelde Keta
Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center
Ziway, Ethiopia

Abstract
Land degradation and its consequences is one of the more serious and complex problems in the developing country particularly in Ethiopia. Land degradation results primarily from incorrect land use and bad land management practices. Review of the study indicated that Causes for land degradation were: human population growth, poor soil management, deforestation, insecurity in land tenure, variation of climatic conditions, and intrinsic characteristics of fragile soils in diverse agro-ecological zones. Various forms of efforts to control the land degradation through introduced Soil and Water Conservation measures have been undertaken for several years. Farmer’s adoption rates and effects of SWC on soil loss, moisture retention, and crop yield and climate change have been reviewed. Literature shows that SWC measures have promising effects on reducing soil loss and runoff, trapping a significant quantity of sediment at early stages, mitigate climate change, improving soil moisture and increases soil fertility. Crop yield improvement was repeatedly reported especially after two to five years of the structure and frequently in low rainfall and drier areas. Due to conservation effects carbon sequestration have been commenced as an effective tool for adaptation and mitigating climate change or extreme weather events in the country. This paper suggests, based on a review of the literature, that Management decisions regarding conservation practices, such as mulching, con¬servation agriculture, and returning crop residue to the field to increase nutrient cycling, can contribute to carbon sequestration and help us mitigate and adapt to climate change But an intensive labour requirement and other biophysical and socioeconomic factors discourage farmer’s adoption of soil and water conservation structures. Our review suggests that without management decisions that increase soil and water conservation, food security for the world’s growing population will be harder to achieve.

Keywords: SWC, Land Degradation, Adaptation, Climate, Mitigation, Ethiopia.

1. Introduction
Soil degradation is a global threat (Cerdà et al., 2010; Mighall et al., 2012; de Souza Braz et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2013). It has been affecting about two billion hectares of land (Oldeman et al., 1991). While no region is immune, developing countries are more severely affected by soil degradation than developed countries. Ethiopia, one of the developing countries in eastern Africa, is highly threatened by soil degradation problems (Hurni et al., 2007). Soil degradation is a serious problem in Ethiopia, particularly in the highlands, where population density is high and the bulk of crop production occurs (Haile & Fetene, 2012; Karltun et al., 2013; Belay et al., 2014).. The Ethiopian highlands Soil erosion is a severe problem in sloping areas, especially in the northern and central highlands where vegetation cover is very low and soils are already very shallow (Jabbar et al., 2000).
The pressure from human and livestock populations, coupled with biophysical, social, economic, and political factors, has caused severe degradation of resources and climate changes (Sonneveld, 2002; Girmay et al., 2008). Depletion of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrients, salinization, and soil erosion by water were the most critical forms of soil degradation (Bewket, 2003; Girmay et al., 2008) and are exacerbated by deforestation. Soil erosion varies with soil types (erodibility) and erosive factors like slope of the land (length and steepness), rainfall characteristics (volume, intensity and duration), soil cover and land management (Prasannakumar et al. 2012).
Soil erosion by water is by far the most prominent process of soil degradation in the highlands (Haile & Fetene, 2012; Haregeweyn et al., 2013). It causes an annual loss of 30,000 ha (0.03%) of land area (EC-FAO, 1998; National Review Report, 2002) and 1.5Mg billions of soil and severely damages over two million hectares (Hurni, 1993). Soil erosion is severing in the weyna-dega and dega (cool) zones, which mainly have rugged topography and cover over 60% of the area (WDNRMD, 2013).
Over the past three decades, per capita food production in Ethiopia has declined from ……..

2. Literature Review
2.1. Soil Erosion and Land Degradation in Ethiopia
Land degradation results primarily from incorrect land use and bad land management (Blum et al., 1998; Mazengia, 2010). Similarly, most studies in Ethiopia have also strengthened this thought. In Ethiopia an estimate 17% of the potential annul agricultural GDP of the Country is lost because of physical and biological soil degradation (Tilahun et al., 2007). Causes for land degradation are: human population growth, poor soil management, deforestation, insecurity in land tenure, variation of climatic conditions, and intrinsic characteristics of fragile soils in diverse agro-ecological zones (Bationo et al., 2006). Also (Badege, 2009) pointed out that soil degradation in Ethiopia can be seen as a direct result of past agricultural practices in the highlands. The dissected terrain, the extensive areas with slopes above 16%, and the high intensity of rainfall lead to accelerated soil erosion once deforestation occurs.
The causes and effects of land degradation are complex, and have intermingled environmental impacts. Deterioration of crop production particularly in the highlands is cited as a major and prime impact of the land degradation …….

Journal Full Text PDF: Effect of Soil and Water Conservation Measures on Land Degradation Under Climate Change Scenario in Ethiopia: A Review of Work.

Trend and Status of the African Sheep Populations and Productivity

International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 177 – 188
Date: 12 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Ashebir Worku & Asha Ahmed

Ashebir Worku & Asha Ahmed
Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, Batu, Oromia
Adami Tullu Jiddo Kombolcha District, Livestock Agency, Batu, Oromia

Abstract
The present article was performed with an objective of generating information on the current status of sheep population of Africa and their productivity. FAO data from FAOSTAT (2017) and different authors results were used to generate the data for this study. The article discusses history of domestication of sheep and root of entrances to Africa. The article also reviews breeds of sheep in the glob and Africa with the status of the breed. Accordingly, the status of 62.5% sheep breed in Africa was not known which alarmingly show us the need of strategically study about them. In addition the paper covers the status of the population, meat production, milk production, skin and wool production as a whole and the leading top ten countries in the continent. From this study the importance of sheep to the livelihood of the smallholder farmers/pastoralist was boldly indicated from the result. So, attention should be given in the future to improve the production and reproduction of sheep both in Africa and the world.

Keywords: Trend, Status, African Sheep, Populations, Productivity, Strategic.

1. Introduction
Sheep (Ovis aries) were probably first domesticated at least three separate times in the Fertile Crescent of western Iran and Turkey, Syria and Iraq (Ensminger and Parker, 1986). This occurred approximately 10,500 years ago, and involved at least three different subspecies of the wild mouflon (Ovis gmelini) Ensminger and Parker, (1986). Sheep were the first “meat” animals domesticated. Hans-Peter Uerpmann poses a scenario leading to domestication, that hunters might have brought orphaned animals back to their homes (Ensminger and Parker, 1986).Because mouflon are docile and cute as babies, they might have been kept at households long enough to reach sexual maturity and begin breeding. Sheep, course, were not simply bred for meat, but also provide milk and milk products, hide for leather, and later, wool. Morphological changes in sheep that are recognized as signs of domestication include reduction in body size, female sheep lacking horns, and demographic profiles that include large percentages of young animals (Blench et al, 1999).
Sheep disseminated all over the world because their great adaptability to varying environmental conditions and the different nutritional regimes under which they were evolved and subsequently maintained. They proved useful to man throughout the ages due to their productivity, small size, and non-competiveness with him for food …….

2.1 Development, Breeds and importance of sheep in Africa
2.1.1. Historical development of sheep in Africa
Domestic sheep probably entered Africa in several waves through northeastern Africa and the Horn of Africa, the earliest beginning about 7700 BP. Sheep entered the African continent not long after their domestication in western Asia (Blench et al, 1999). A minority of historians once posited a contentious African theory of origin for Ovis aries. This theory is based primarily on rock art interpretations, and osteological evidence from Barbary sheep (Blench et al, 1999). The first sheep entered North Africa via Sinai, and were present in ancient Egyptian society between eight and seven thousand years ago Castlemilk (1996). Sheep first appear in the archaeological record of southern Africa by ca. 2270 RCYBP, and examples of fat-tailed sheep are found on undated rock art in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Several lineages of domestic sheep are found in modern herds in South Africa today, all sharing a common material ancestry ……..

Journal Full Text PDF: Trend and Status of the African Sheep Populations and Productivity.

Plant Photo Morphogenesis

International Journal of Biology, Physics & Matematics
ISSN: 2721-3757, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 104 – 118
Date: 11 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Mekonen Wolditsadik Beyi

Mekonen Wolditsadik Beyi
School of Biological Sciences & Biotechnology, Collage of Natural and Computational Science
Haramaya University
Ethiopia

Abstract
Photo morphogenesis is the process by which plants grow and develop in response to light signals. Phytochromes are a Protein pigment of blue light identified in 1959. Phytochromes are a family of unique photosensory molecules used by plants to monitor informational light signals in the environment. Green light effects on leaf inclination mimicked those of shade environments with a low red to far-red ratios. Once blue-green reversibility was identified in plants, namely in stomata aperture pathways, experiments to examine green light effects in early development were initiated. Higher plant phytochromes are serine/Threonine kinases. Photomorphogenesis is Nature has produced a number of light absorbing molecules that enable organisms to respond to changes in the natural light environment. The term photomorphogenesis refers to the dramatic effects of light on plant development and cellular metabolism. Red light exerts the strongest influence, and the effects of red light are often reversible by far-red light.

Keywords: Phytochrome, Stomata, Photomorphogenesis, Kinases, Serine.

1. Introduction
Photomorphogenesis is the process by which plants grow and develop in response to light signals. This process is mediated by a sophisticated network of photoreceptors among which phytochromes play a key role. Phytochrome-mediated photomorphogenic responses are characterized by the complex variety of relationships between light input and physiological outputs, including germination, de-etiolation, shade avoidance, circadian rhythm, and flowering. Recent studies have resulted in several important advances, and have revealed the major consequences of Phytochrome activity in terms of controlling protein sub cellular localization, transcription, protein stability, and protein phosphorylation. In addition, many downstream components in the Phytochrome signaling have now been identified, and a complex, highly regulated signaling network is envisaged.
Photomorphogenesis is the process by which light regulates aspects of plant growth and development (Kendrick & Kronenberg, 1994). A process in which light as a signal alters development of the plant to the form, at which the plant can use light as source of energy. During the life cycle of a plant, light has been shown to play an important role in : (i) the photo control of germination ; (ii) the process of de-etiolation, which results in the transition from the strategy of dark-adapted growth, while below the ground (typified by poorly developed leaves and rapid elongation growth while living heterotrophically on the seed food reserves), to the strategy of light-adapted growth, as a green photo synthetically self-sufficient seedling ; (iii) shade avoidance (near neighbor detection) due to the perception of change in spectral quality of the light environment as a consequence of transmission and reflectance from other plants. Plant development includes several stages, namely, embryogenesis, vegetative development (formation of stem and leaves), generative development (formation of floral meristems and flowers), and senescence. All these stages, starting from germination, are affected by light (Casal, 2002) as well as functioning of one third of the plant genome, in which three fifth of genes are activated and two fifth are repressed by light (Ma еt al., 2001). Photomorphogenesis is a program of seedling development, in which heterotrophic growth at the expense of internal seed reserves is switched to autotrophic nutrition of plants with photosynthesis products.
Seedlings germinated in darkness are of yellow color and have long hypocotyls, poorly developed cotyledons, and no chloroplasts. After germination, light induces de-etiolation of the seedlings. Studies of pathways of signal transduction from photoreceptors to light-regulated genes are of great interest (Quail, 2002). In addition to functioning as a source of energy for photosynthesis, light also acts as an informational stimulus that triggers photomorphogenic development in plants. The physical manifestation of photomorphogenesis includes the development of short hypocotyls, open and expanded cotyledons, and green chloroplasts. Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings have long been employed as a model system for genetic …….

2. Literature Review
2.1. Plant Photomorphogenesis
A process in which light as a signal alters development of the plant to the form, at which the plant can use light as source of energy. Plants as photoautotrophs are exquisitely sensitive to their light environment. Not only is light the primary energy source for plants but also it provides them positional information to modulate their growth and developmental processes, including seed germination, seedling de-etiolation, gravitropism, phototropism, chloroplast movement, shade avoidance, neighborhood sensing, circadian rhythms and flowering time. Plants can detect almost all the facets of light including its direction, duration and periodicity, quantity and wavelength. One of the key events in life cycle of plants ……

Journal Full Text PDF: Plant Photo Morphogenesis.

Analysis of Potato Seed Systems In Ethiopia: Review

Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1 Issue 1, page 164 – 176
Date: 11 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Beriso Bati Bukul

Beriso Bati Bukul
Department of Agricultural Economics, Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Centre
Adami Tulu, Ethiopia

Abstract
Potato is one of the tuber crops grown in Ethiopia. This review paper investigated different literatures on potato seed systems in Ethiopia with objective of describing the status and performance of potato seed systems, seed production and storage, seed tuber quality, seed availability and distribution and information flow. As different literature indicate that potato seed systems in Ethiopia classified into informal, alternative and formal. The informal potato seed system supplies 98.7% of the seed tubers required in Ethiopia whereas the remained 1.3% supplied by alternative seed system. There is no public formal seed potato supply system in Ethiopia because Ethiopian Seed Enterprise is not involved in seed potato production and supply because of its limited capacity. Unavailability of quality seeds at the right place and time coupled with poor promotion system is due to inefficiency of the seed systems of the country. In general although, the crop is important food crop, wide ranging factors are hindering seed potato system. Therefore, for the improvement of the potato seed system and thereby the services obtained from the system it should be improved through integrative study.

Keywords: Review, Potato Seed System, Informal, Alternative and Formal.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background and Justifications
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the tuber crops grown in Ethiopia. It is grown by approximately 1 million farmers (CSA, 2008/2009). Recently the price of cereals strongly increased worldwide and in Ethiopia the price subsequently stabilized at a high level, whereas the price of roots and tubers remained relatively low during the entire food crisis. This shows that there is room for added value in the chain of tuber crops. Potato can potentially be grown on about 70% of the 10 Mha of arable land in the country (FAO, 2008)
Ethiopia are suitable for potato production although the national average production is low (that is 13.7 ton/ha) (CSA, 2015). The national average potato yield is low as compared to the potential yield (40 ton/ha) obtained under research condition was due to lack of high-quality seed potatoes is a major factor (Lemaga et al., 1994; Endale et al., 2008a; Gildemacher et al., 2009a; Tewodros, 2014), Lack of quality seed potato (Amede et al., 2006; Hardy et al., 1995; Medhin et al., 2000;Tewodros, 2014), high yielding varieties and storage facilities coupled with poor agronomic practices (Medhin et al., 2000; Adane et al., 2010; Tewodros, 2014) have been found to contribute to the low yield of potato in Ethiopia. The majority of potato growing smallholder farmers uses low yielding and late blight susceptible local varieties due to the limited availability of improved seed potatoes in the country (Getachew and Mela, 2000; Medhin et al., 2000). Ethiopia is a landlocked, poor country with a negative trade balance, which makes expensive imports of high-quality seed tubers from Europe or elsewhere unaffordable. Increase in potato acreage and yield calls for improvement of the quality of seed potatoes supplied to the ware potato production systems (Adane et al., 2010).
Generation and transfer of improved technologies are critical prerequisites for agricultural development particularly for an agrarian based economy such as of Ethiopian. Despite the release of several technologies, particularly of improved crop varieties, there has been limited use of improved seeds by the majority of farmers (CSA, 2010). According to Adane et al. (2010) unavailability of quality seeds at the right place and time coupled with poor promotion system, is one of the key factors accounting for limited use of improved seeds, which further contributing for low agricultural productivity. Poor availability and promotion of improved seeds is due to inefficiency of the seed systems of the country …….

2. Literature Review
Potato Seed Systems in Ethiopia. Different authors classify seed systems into different types; Struik and Wiersema (1999) classify seed systems into informal and formal, while others classify them into local and formal (World Bank et al., 2009), or farmers’ and formal (Almekinders and Louwaars 1999) and others classify seed systems into informal, alternative and formal (Lemaga et al., 1994; Mulatu et al., 2005a; Endale et al., 2008a; Gildemacher et al., 2009a; Adane et al., 2010). The description of each potato seed system presented as follows.

2.1.1. The informal seed potato system
The informal seed potato system is a seed potato system in which tubers to be used for planting are produced and distributed by farmers without any regulation. This seed system exists in all potato growing areas of Ethiopia and it is the major seed potato system which supplies 98.7% of the seed tubers required in Ethiopia (Gildemacher et al., 2009a; Adane et al., 2010). The seed tubers supplied by this system …….

Journal Full Text PDF: Analysis of Potato Seed Systems In Ethiopia: Review.

Potential Use of Crop Residues as Livestock Feed Resources in Ethiopia

Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1 Issue 1, page 156 – 163
Date: 9 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Daniel Wana

Daniel Wana
Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center
Batu, Ziway, Ethiopia

Abstract
Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major factors limiting productivity of livestock systems in Ethiopia. The possibilities of improving the livestock production systems by reviewing potential feed resources, their constraints and identifying points of intervention were lacking in Ethiopia. This review also identified some potential feed resources particularly crop residues that could be exploited for livestock nutrition at the time of feed scarcity. The main livestock feed resources in the country were natural pastures, crop residues, improved pasture and forage and agro-industrial by-products, of which the first two contribute the largest share. Among these resources Crop residues are roughages that become available as livestock feeds after crops have been harvested. The major crop residues produced in the Ethiopia could be broadly grouped into cereal, pulse, fruit, root crops, vegetables and sugar cane. The contribution of crop residues to the annual livestock feed requirement reaches 40 to 50%. About 14 million tons of crop residues are produced in the country annually, cereal straws accounts for 95 % of the total crop residues while legume residues account for the rest. The dry matter (DM) content of all crop residues was above 90%. All crop residues had lower CP contents than the minimum level of 7% CP required for optimum rumen microbial function. The yield and quality characteristics of residues are determined by the genetic makeup of the crop, growing conditions and harvesting, threshing and storage methods. As the level of dependence of livestock feeding on crop residues increases in the country, increasing the yield and quality of crop residues plays a pivotal role. Poor storage facility and effect of termites are the most serious problems related to crop residue utilization in the country. Improvement of crop residues (e.g. urea treatment and ensiling of crop residues) is rarely practiced except spraying salt solution to improve palatability by some farmers. Provision of technical knowledge on how to improve the quality of existing feed resources and its management facilities will enhance productivity.

Keywords: Crop Residues, Crude Protein, Livestock.

1. Introduction
Grazing is the predominant form of ruminant feeding system in most parts of the extensive and smallholder crop-livestock farming areas in Ethiopia. However, natural pasture as a source of feed is restricted to the wet season (Zinash et al., 1995). The major feed resources in the highlands are natural pasture, crop residues and stubble grazing (Alemayehu, 2004). Feed shortage has been understood as one of the most critical problems limiting livestock Production and productivity. Substantial efforts have been made so far to resolve the feed shortage problem in the Ethiopian highlands, aiming at improving feed availability and thereby improve livestock productivity. However, the impact was so little to cope up with the problem that animals are still subjected to long periods of nutritional stress (EARO, 2001b). Studies have indicated that in Ethiopia, there is a feed deficit of about 12,300,000 tons of dry matter per year (Alemayehu, 2004). The adoption of feed technologies by farmers has been constrained by lack of follow up and technical backstopping (EEA/EEPRI, 2006).
Livestock farming is an important and integral part of the agricultural sector in Ethiopia. Livestock farming is vital for the supply of meat and milk; it also serves as a source of additional income both for smallholder farmers and livestock owners’ (Ehui et al., 2002). Livestock production constraints can be grouped into socio-economic and technical limitations (Mengistu, 2003). Inadequate feed, widespread ……

2. Literature Review
2.1. Crop residues as livestock feed resources in Ethiopia.
Livestock in the Sub-Saharan Africa are dependent primarily on native grasslands and crop residues (Ibrahim, 1999). According to Alemayehu (2003), Ethiopia’s Livestock feed resources are mainly natural grazing and browse, crop residues, improved pasture, and agro-industrial by-products. The feeding systems include communal or private natural grazing and browsing, cut and carry feeding, hay and crop residues. At present, in the country stock are fed almost entirely on natural pasture and crop residues. The availability and quality of forage are not favorable year round. As a result, the gains made in the wet season are totally or partially lost in the dry season (Alemayehu, 2003). Inadequate feed during the dry season is a major that causes decline in the productivity of ruminants. In the Sub-Saharan Africa, human population is increasing rapidly, forcing farmers to use grazing areas for arable farming. As a result, the smallholder farmers in this part of Africa have integrated their livestock into their cropping systems and used crop residues as a main livestock feed resources (Ibrahim, 1999).

2.1.1. Crop residues
Crop residues are important feed resources in the mixed crop/livestock production system. Reports (Daniel, 1988; Lemma, 2002) indicate that the contribution of crop residues to the annual livestock feed requirement reaches 40 to 50%. With the decline in the size of the grazing land and degradation through overgrazing and the expansion of arable cropping, crop residues have become increasingly important in the production system. According to EARO (2001b), about 14 million tons of crop residues are produced annually, cereal straws accounts for 95 % of the total crop residues while legume residues account for the rest. Among crop residues, teff straw, maize Stover and sorghum Stover constitute the bulk with contributions of 27, 27 and 22 % of the total residue yield respectively (EARO, 2001b). Apart from being a source of animal feed, residues are sources of building, roofing and fencing materials. They are used also as fuel and as fertilizers or as surface mulch in cropland (Van Raay and de Leeuw, 1970, 1974). Their value as feed depends on the demand from livestock owners, which varies with the overall supply ……..

Journal Full Text PDF: Potential Use of Crop Residues as Livestock Feed Resources in Ethiopia.

Analysis of Production Objectives and Breeding Practices for Native Goat Breed Reared

Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1 Issue 1, page 142 – 155
Date: 9 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Ashebir Worku & Asha Ahmed

Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, Batu, Oromia
Adami Tullu Jiddo Kombolcha District, Livestock Agency, Batu, Oromia

Abstract
The study was conducted in Sebeta-Awas District of Oromia regional state to define farmers’ goats production objectives, their trait preferences and characterizing of their breeding practices in the study areas. Purposive and simple random sampling was employed to select the study PAs and all the respondents in the study sites. Semi-structure questionnaire survey was implemented to collect the required information by interviewing the selected respondents in each selected PAs. The results showed that about 76.6% and 23.4% of the respondents interviewed during the survey time were males and females respectively. The mean family size of the interviewed respondents in the study PAs was 9.54± 4.36 with statisticaly differ across PAs @(P<0.05). The survey result indicated that the production objective of goat in the study areas were primerly for income source followed by Saving, meat,manure, social purpose and for skin with an index value of 0.35 ,0.19, 0.14, 0.13, 0.09, 0.07 and 0.03. About 66.7% of the respondent farmers select goats for breeding purpose, while the rest 33.3% did not select small ruminant for breeding purposes. During the survey time the reproductive performance of goats was also assessed and its result indicated that the mean age at first kidding in the study areas is 13±0.67 months. The average kidding interval in the study PAs was 7.24 month, while the mean litter size of doe in study PAs was 1.69±0.02 kids. Feed shortage and diseases were the most pertinent constraints irrespective of all the areas studied. Thus, in all the cases there have to be efforts aimed towards improving the Genetics, management and seasonal shortage of feed and fodder have to be taken care.

Keywords: Breeding Objective, Inbreeding and Kidding Interval.

1. Background/ Rationale
Ethiopia is endowed with abundant livestock resources of varied and diversified nature reared across several agro ecologies (Tesfaye, 2009). Farm animals as a whole are an integral part of the country’s agricultural system and are raised both in the highland and lowland areas. Similarly, the habitats of the indigenous goat breeds extend from the arid lowlands (the pastoral and agro-pastoral production system) to the humid highlands (mixed farming systems) covering even the extreme tsetse-infested areas of the country (Workneh, 1992). Sebeta-Awas is endowed with large population of livestock .
However, livestock production is constrained by different factors such as sever animal health related problem, less productivity of animals, absence of improved breeds, marketing of livestock and lack of information on the actual performance of animals under their natural habitat and these needs to be addressed to improve the livelihood of the producers.
The design of sustainable genetic improvement schemes under smallholder situations requires indigenous knowledge on traditional breeding practices which is structured differently from scientific knowledge (Sölkner-Rollefson, J. 2003). Lack of such knowledge leads to the setting up of unrealistic breeding goals in the design of livestock genetic improvement programs and the consequence of which can put in danger the conservation of indigenous animal genetic resources (Zewdu et al., 2006). Pastoralists or smallholder farmers have very valuable knowledge about animal management and desirable traits but less knowledge on how genes are transmitted to the next generation and how to use information from relatives (Rege, 2001). When defining the selection criteria, they consider not only the individual’s own features, but also, for example, the features of the individual’s parents and grandparents. Presently, community-based genetic improvement strategies are being advocated (Gizaw etal. 2010 ). Among the important subjects are the breeding practices, description of production environment, definition of breeding goals/ objectives and traits to be selected for (traits preference) ………

2.1 Description of the study area
The study was conducted in Sebeta-Awas District of Oromia regional state of Ethiopia to study about native goat breed in the area. The study areas are described separately by each kebeles. The current study was conducted in four kebeles namely Sago, Dibbe, Kemsi Dika and Akale.

2.2 Sampling techniques
A multi-stage purposive sampling technique was employed where first districts known for goats productivity in the zone were identified. This was followed by identifying of potential Kebeles and villages. Potential for goats population and practice of communal grazing system were used as criteria in selecting the sites. In addition to secondary data, discussions were held with zonal and district agricultural experts and development agents at the village level to select the sites ……

Journal Full Text PDF: Analysis of Production Objectives and Breeding Practices for Native Goat Breed Reared (Study in Sebeta-Awas District of Oromia Regional State)