The Influence of Element Marketing Communication, Relationship Commitment, Business on the Quality on Consumer Relations Against Customer Loyalty

International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 32 – 54
Date: 22 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Haris Hermawan, Raden Andi Sularso, Diah Yulisetiarini & Hari Sukarno

Haris Hermawan & Raden Andi Sularso
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

Diah Yulisetiarini & Hari Sukarno
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

Abstract
The ASEAN Economic Community (MEA) is the integration of ASEAN member countries into the economic community for its people, in the era of the ASEAN Economic Community there are many challenges and opportunities faced by small culinary businesses in general. The challenge faced is increasingly fierce competition and competitors will take customers who are loyal to the product, the opportunity to be achieved is the growing market share in ASEAN. ASEAN economic blueprint in the MEA era is a challenge and opportunity for companies in Indonesia. This research includes the type of explanatory research or confirmatory research. The variables in this study are marketing soft sell (X1), Hard sell Marketing communication (X2), Relationship Commitment (X3), Relationship Quality (Y1), and Customer Loyalty (Y2). Data interval measurements (interval scale data) that produce responses to stimuli are presented in semantic (bipolar adjective) categories. The method used is a purposive sampling method based on quota. The analysis used to test the hypothesis in this study is SEM-Structural Equation Modeling) The findings of this study in the form of emotion shopping mediation from business to consumer relationship quality in triggering impulse buying based on marketing soft sell communication, marketing communication hard sell and relationship commitment. The research findings show that the direct effect of business to consumer relationship quality on customer loyalty is 51.3%, impulse buying in the form of relationship commitment with affective-emotional indicators (willing to buy because of affective attitude with the seller’s commitment), cognitive-calculative (perceived that the company has the ability to provide competitive prices), Non-Coercive seller (ability to offer products to buy along with specific manner of salesmen), Uncertainty avoidance (having clear rules to prevent customer confusion) These indicators are based on characteristics that can be defined and observed by customers , while the emotion of business to consumer relationship quality arising from this study comes from the Money-back guarantee indicator, Trust (trust that grows in relational relations), Commitment (keeping promises), Satisfaction (customer satisfaction felt ) The findings of this study are to confirm and extend the results of empirical studies from previous studies that prove that: there is a guarantee of the company’s ability to repay money if the order is not appropriate.

Keywords: Soft Sell Marketing, Hard Sell Marketing, Relationship Commitment, Business to Consumer Relationship Quality Customer Loyalty, Impulse Buying & Shopping Emotion.

1. Background of the Research
1.1 Introduction
Kotler and Armstrong (2008: 10) states that marketing communication aims to find, attract, retain and grow target customers by creating, delivering, and communicating value superiority with customers while maintaining loyal customers, maintaining customer loyalty means the company’s ability to position its products in mind customers and try to think of customers as partners by strengthening customer confidence, always interacting, if necessary develop for mutual progress. Terence (2003: 24-29) states the character of marketing communication: (1) influences behavior, (2) starts from customers and prospective customers, (3) uses one or all means to “contact”, (4) tries to create synergy, (5) establish relationships.
Customer loyalty is defined as the loyalty shown by customers to products with indicators: loyal to continuous purchase-retention (Olivares et al., 2018), repurchase-buying (Kenningham et al., 2015), recommending products or service recommendations as well as reference source for referrals (Ku et al., 2016; Berman, 2015), so that customers have endurance not affected by other products-resistance (Mani and Chuck, 2017).
Customer consumption behavior begins to shift, retail customers shop through stores, now through online shops. This behavior is ……….

1.2 Research Gap
Research gap; (1) soft sell that performs its functions as follows: uses more visual imagery and are more subtle and ambiguous than hard sell ones, which are relatively more informational and focus on tangible product features, and (2) hard sell can be equated with informational advertising, particularly the kind that uses strong arguments and demands for action on these two elements based on research by Bradley et al. (1994); Messaris (1998); Alden et al. (1999); Okazaki et al. (2014); Prasertchuwong (2015). Zia (2014) and Rahi et al. (2016) state that Public Relations and Publicity will be effective for customer loyalty when customers have a good shopping experience, customers can conduct testimonials. Husnain et al. (2015); Khizar et al. (2016); Chang et al. (2016) states that there is proven direct marketing and commitment from the company will increase customer loyalty. Pongpaew et al. (2016); Verma et al. (2015); Jalillvand et al. (2012); Bilgihan (2016) states that interactive / internet marketing by means of social media, online shop can increase trust in marketing and influence loyalty, but otherwise Xu (2016) states that web-advertising does not affect customer loyalty if it is difficult to enter the url (uniform resource locator) ……….

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Triggering Impulsive Buying Based on Brand Personality, Promotion and Servicescape with Mediation Shopping Emotion

International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 20 – 31
Date: 9 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Qori’atul Adawiyah, Imam Suroso & M. Dimyati

Qori’atul Adawiyah
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

Imam Suroso
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

M. Dimyati
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

Abstract
This study aims to determine the direct influence of brand personality, promotion, and servicescape on impulse buying through the mediation of wardah shopping emotion products in Roxi Banyuwangi. The research was also conducted to find out indirect brand personality, promotion, and servicescape knowledge on impulse buying through wardah shopping emotion in Roxy’s Banyuwangi. This study was conducted in Roxi Banyuwangi at the wardah cosmetic outlet. The population in this study was 140 people. The analytical tool used in this study is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to determine the direct and indirect effects of independent variables with dependent variables. The results of this study are that brand personality has a significant effect on shopping emotion. Promotion has a significant effect on shopping emotion Servicescape has a significant effect on shopping. Brand personality has a significant effect on impulse buying. Promotion has a significant effect on impulse buying. Servicescape has a significant effect on impulse buying. Shopping emotion has a significant effect on impulse buying. Shoping emotion mediation in the influence of brand personality on impulse buying in Roxy Banyuwangi shows significant and positive effects. Shopping emotion mediation in the influence of promotion on impulse buying in Roxy Banyuwangi shows significant and positive results. The shopping emotion mediation in the servicescape influence on impulse buying in Roxy Banyuwangi showed significant results and had a positive effect.

Keywords: Brand Personality, Promotion, Servicescape, Impulse Buying, & Shopping Emotion.

1. Introduction
Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that are related to the brand. Brand personality is important because it can add more value to the eyes of consumers for a brand and is also able to influence consumer purchasing decisions (Best, 2007). Promotion is one element that has an important role in marketing. Sales promotion is a form of direct persuasion through the use of various incentive tools to encourage the purchase of a particular product or service quickly and increase the amount of goods purchased by consumers (Tjiptono, 2008: 86). The various forms of sales promotion are the best known POP or point of purchase. POP includes all visual forms created by brand owners, starting from display installation, floor advertising to product placement with attractive shapes or sequences. Besides POP sales promotions can also be done in the form of contests. Usually, product brand owners set up their booths and hold several prize competitions. Another form is to give prizes that can be exchanged directly by making discounts or providing gifts and samples attached to the products sold. In addition, retailers have the ability to manipulate store environments in order to encourage impulse buying, one of which is to create a convenient and attractive shopping environment so that consumers can enjoy shopping activities (Tjiptono, 2008: 97). Emotion shoping also includes one that affects impulse buying. Emotions are generally triggered by environmental events (Solomon, 2007: 114). A person’s mood or emotions or a person’s psychological condition at the time of purchase can have a big impact on what he buys or how he values his purchases.
At present the development of the Indonesian cosmetics industry is relatively solid. Wardah’s cosmetic product sales increase occurred from 2011 to 2012. In 2011, Mustika Ratu’s products were the first place to achieve the biggest sales in the cosmetics category, but Wardah took second place. In 2012 until 2015, Wardah took the position and conversely Mustika Ratu was second after Wardah. Although it is at the top of 2012 until 2015, Wardah must remain vigilant against its competitors. It can be seen also from the table above, that Wardah’s sales increase ……..

2. Literature Review
Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that have relevance to the brand Best, et al (2007) stating that. Brands with personalities tend to be more impressive and better than brands with no personality, just as human brands can have various personalities such as being professional or being competent in Aaker (2008). Based on this understanding, it can be concluded that brand personality is a characteristic that exists in someone who has a relationship with a brand. Brand personality is important because it can add value to the eyes of consumers for a brand. Aaker has developed a brand personality dimension which is a framework for describing and measuring brand personality in five core dimensions.
Promotion is one part of a series of marketing activities for an item. Promotion is an activity in the field of marketing which is a communication carried out by the company to buyers or consumers that includes reporting, persuading, and influencing everything about goods and services produced for consumers, while the activity aims to increase sales volume by attracting consumers’ interest in making decisions buy at the company. To clarify about the notion of promotion, here are some definitions of promotion (Tjiptono, 2000: 219) …….

3. Methodology
This study uses confirmatory research because it aims to explain and test or prove a theory or hypothesis to strengthen or reject existing research theories or hypotheses. The influence in question is the brand personality influence of sales promotion and servicescape on impulse buying with shopping emotion as an intervening variable. This study uses quuneruner and likert scale measurements to measure research variables.
The population of this research is all consumers of wardah products who are making unplanned purchases on wardah products in Roxy’s Banyuwangi. The sampling technique used in this study ……..

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The Influence of Work Satisfaction, Antecedent Satisfaction and Consumer’s Loyalty Through Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Consumer’s Interaction Quality

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 10 – 19
Date: 9 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Raden Andi Sularso, Iwan Mulyawan, Lanny Purnama Kosasi, Raden Roro Lia Chairina, Purnamie Titi Sari, & Fajar Destari

Raden Andi Sularso, Purnamie Titisari, & Fajar Destari
Faculty of Economics & Business, University of Jember, Indonesia

Iwan Mulyawan
Bandung Polytechnic, Indonesia

Lanny Purnama Kosasi
Pancasetia Banjarmasin Economics College, Indonesia

Raden Roro Lia Chairina
Jember Polytechnic, Indonesia

Abstract
This study is included in explanatory research. The population is 18 Matahari Department retail Store in East Java. The respondents in this study are employees of salespeople and consumers, this study is also called dyad research, because it uses two different respondents, while the technique of drawing proportional rondom sampling and sub-samples of consumer sub-samples simple random sampling Data analysis methods used Generalized Structured Components Analysis (GSCA). This study concludes that: 1) Job satisfaction has a significant and positive effect on OCB; 2) Job satisfaction has no significant effect on satisfaction; 3) Job satisfaction has a significant and positive effect on the quality of consumer interaction; 4) OCB has a significant and positive effect on the quality of consumer interaction; 5) OCB has no significant effect on the quality of consumer interaction; 6) Quality of consumer interaction has a significant and positive effect on customer satisfaction; and 7) Consumer satisfaction has no significant effect on consumer loyalty..

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, OCB, Quality of Consumer Interaction, Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty.

1. Introduction
Research on the relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction in the retail sector is still not widely done, it is expected that the results of this study can be a reference that supports further studies related to the relationship of employee job satisfaction and customer satisfaction. The object of this study is Matahari Department Store for several reasons. Matahari Department Store is one of the pioneering local retailers of the concept of the first Department Store in Indonesia that is growing rapidly and is able to compete with outside retailers entering Indonesia. Matahari Department Store itself has been a company that went public since 1992.
Global companies experience a shift from conventional approaches to contemporary approaches (Tjiptono, 2011: 480). Conventional approaches emphasize customer satisfaction, cost reduction, market share, and market research. While the contemporary approach focuses on customer loyalty, customer retention, zero defections, and lifelong customers. One strategy that can facilitate customer satisfaction and loyalty is relationship marketing (RM). The theoretical study which is the basis for studying the formation of the relationship between employee job satisfaction and customer satisfaction and customer loyalty refers to the basis of relationship marketing theory.
Gronroos (1990) defines relationship marketing by developing, maintaining, improving and commercializing customer relations to achieve the goals of all parties involved. Relationship marketing not only emphasizes the relationship between organizations and customers, but also with other stakeholders. In the field of consumer satisfaction management (Fornell et, al., 1996; Oliver, 1996) and employee job satisfaction (Brown and Peterson, 1993; Churchill et. Al., 1985) are two of the most studied fields, but not much research connecting the two into one study, although theoretically consumer satisfaction is strongly related to employee satisfaction (Robbins and Judge, 2008: 115; Kotler and Keller, 2012: 364).

2. Literature Review
The Homburg and Stock (2004) study concluded that the relationship between job satisfaction and customer satisfaction is very strong, especially when the quality of consumer interaction increases. This study developed a study conducted by Homburg and Stock (2004), in addition to the three variables above this study included variables of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and loyalty generated from studies of other studies. The Homburg and Stock (2004) study only looked at the relationship of employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction through the quality of interactions based on consumer perceptions, but in this study included OCB variables based on employee perceptions ………

3. Research Methodology
The population of this study was carried out at the Matahari Department Store retail in Java as many as 18 retailers with an analysis unit of salespeople and consumers. This study is also called dyadic research because it uses two different respondents, while the technique of drawing sub-samples of employees using proportional rondom sampling and the technique of withdrawing consumer sub-samples is done by simple random sampling, which is taking consumers served by respondents using odd numbers (1st, 3rd and so on).
Determination of the sample in this study uses the following formula (Anderson et., Al, 2011: 326);
Where: n is the sample size, zα / 2 is the confidence level used (95% = 1.96), σ is the population standard deviation (using 9.65) and E is the margin of error (using 2). If the data is entered in a formula, it will get n = 89.43 or = 90 people.
The number of salespeople who became a sample is 90 salespeople. Following previous dyadic research (Hartline and Ferrell, 1996; Roman & Iacobucci, 2010), every one (1) salesperson will ………

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Brand Equity Dimensions in Establish Consumer Satisfaction: Analyzing Direction and Trends in Its Influence

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 161 – 169
Date: 6 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Lingga Kencana

Lingga Kencana
Faculty of Economic and Bussiness
University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

Abstract
This study aims to determine and analyze the dimensions of brand equity in establish customer satisfaction. Research variables are brand equity dimensions which consist of brand awareness (X1), brand association (X2), quality impression (X3), and brand loyalty (X4) and consumer satisfaction (Y). Research analysis is a simple linear regression analysis (simultaneous) and multiple regression (partial), which serves to determine and analyze the direction of influence and the tendency of the influence of independent variables on the dependent variable. The results showed that the dimensions of brand equity consisting of brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality, and brand loyalty influence the positive direction and the tendency level of influence that is relatively strong and moderate to customer satisfaction, while the dimensions of brand equity affect the positive direction and tendency level relatively strong influence on customer satisfaction.

Keywords: Brand Equity Dimensions, Customer Satisfaction, Direction and Trends in Influence

1. Introduction
Building a company that is sensitive to market desires is not easy. Even though there is no sensitivity to market desires, it is difficult to build a strong brand, because the brand is the most important dimension for a product. Brands have an important role in marketing because brands are one of the important elements in marketing a company’s products, especially for new products as a differentiator with similar products. There is a considerable distinction between products and brands. The product is only something produced by the factory, while the brand is something that consumers buy. If the product can be easily copied by competitors, the brand must always have a uniqueness that is difficult to imitate. According to Aaker (in Tjiptono, 2000:41), states a set of brand assets and liabilities relating to a brand, its name and symbol that adds or reduces the value provided by a product or service to a company or company customers. In the concept of brand equity there are 5 dimensions of brand equity consisting of 4 main dimensions and 1 dimension which are influenced by the four other dimensions of brand equity. The main dimensions of brand equity include brand awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality, brand association, and one dimension that is influenced by the other four dimensions of brand equity, namely brand rights others (patents, trademarks, channel relationships).
Nowadays there is a growing concern for consumer satisfaction, it is seen that more and more producers are involved in meeting the needs and desires of consumer. therefore it is very important for a company to focus on paying attention to customer satisfaction. The use of brands and focus on customer satisfaction are basic factors that can encourage consumers to make purchases and shape consumer behavior. Some restaurant management in Jember Regency who use the name of the restaurant that is actually not related to the menu offered, but customers are very enthusiastic in visiting and enjoying a meal in the restaurant. Famous restaurants in Jember Regency are Bu Lanny’s Restaurant, Pak Haji Slamet Restaurant, Wong Solo Restaurant, Kalasan Restaurant, and Lestari Restaurant. This restaurant uses the name of the owner and also just the name or also not related to the various foods offered. However, it is still used as a restaurant brand ………

2. Literature Review
According to Tjiptono (2000:39) basically a brand is not only interpreted as a name but a brand is a promise of a seller or producer to deliver a series of specific characteristics or features, benefits, characteristics, services and specific services consistently to buyers or consumers. Good brands also convey additional guarantees in the form of quality assurance, because without good quality, a product will automatically disappear from the market because consumers shun it. A brand is said to be special if the consumer feels and believes that the brand is truly special or has distinctive characteristics. Meanwhile, according to Aaker (1997:9) the brand is a name or symbol that is distinguishing (such as logos, stamp, or packaging) with the intention of identifying goods or services from a seller or a particular group of sellers, thus distinguishing them from the goods and services produced by competitors or other companies.
According to Aaker (1997:22), brand equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities that relate to a brand, name and symbol, which increase or decrease the value provided by an item or service to the company and its customers. Keller (in Tjiptono 2007:111) brand equity is the effect of differentiation from a combination of brand awareness and brand meaning on customer response to brand marketing. 5 dimensions of brand equity, namely 1) brand awareness. Refers to the extent to which a brand is known or lives in the minds of consumers; 2) Brand association. Reflecting the image of a brand to a certain impression in relation to habits, lifestyle, benefits, product attributes, geography, prices, competitors, celebrities and others ……

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Consumer Considerations In Choosing A Place to Buy: Reducing Observation Factors to Form New Factors

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 140 – 146
Date: 5 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Lingga Kencana

Lingga Kencana
University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

Abstract
This research aims to determine and analyze the factors considered by consumers in choosing a place to buy. The research variable is observation variable. Research analysis is a factor analysis that serves to reduce and summarize certain factors into new factors. The findings shows that out of 15 variables used as research indicators, 4 new factors are formed as the consumer considerations in choosing a place to buy. Factor 1, is food taste factor with its forming variable consists of food taste, opening hours, speed of presentation time, and location. Factor 2, is the cafe reputation factor with its forming variables consists of service hospitality, relatives recommendation, and cafe reputation. Factor 3, is adequate facilities factor with its forming variable consist of price, adequate facilities, and space condition. Factor 4, land and parking lot security factors with its forming variables consists of land and parking lot security and cleanliness of space and equipment.

Keywords: Consumer Considerations, Observation Factors, New Factors.

1. Introduction
The current business development is due to the changing mindset of a dynamic consumer. Thus, understanding the needs of consumers through marketing activities is needed by the company as the basis of ideal customer service. As a lot of companies offer products and services, the consumer has a lot of choices, thus the greater bargaining power (Supranto, 2007:4). Market-oriented thinking is an inevitable necessity. The embodiment of service complexity affects how consumers evaluate the services they purchase (Tjiptono, 2004:97).
One of the profitable business products and services today is cafe restaurant. The selected object is the largest cafe restaurant in Jember Regency, that is Cafe Campus Resto. This cafe restaurant has many customers, because they always succes to make their customers are satisfied. Based on the customers judgement, this cafe resto is good place because of its strategic location, has a spacious space, has a security officer who ensures the customers comfort as well as security of parking vehicles, and a large parking lot making it easier for consumers who come with their personal vehicles. According to Supranto (2007:4), consumers have several different characteristics, where the difference will affect consumer attitudes and behavior in the decision making. Purchasing decisions is the stage of the decision process which the consumer actually purchases the product. Kotler (2008:179) states that the purchase decision process consists of five stages, such as; recognition of needs, search of information, alternative evaluation, purchase decisions, and post-purchase behavior.
The increasing number of cafes and restaurants in Jember Regency demand the cafe managers to manage their business to be consumer-oriented so that the fulfillment of customer needs are always met. The cafe management must be able to realize the needs …….

2. Review Literature
Marketing is the process of managing profitable customer relationships. Two marketing goals are attracting new customers by promising value excellence as well as keeping and growing existing customers by providing satisfaction. Marketing is also the process which the company creates value for customers and builds strong relationships with customers in order to capture the value of customers in return (Kotler, 2008:5).
Consumer behavior is an individual or group action that is directly involved in obtaining and using economic services including the decision-making process that precedes and determines the action (Engel, in Mangkunegara, 2005:3).
The consumer as an object of a marketing activity is a member of various groups, so its behavior will be influenced by several main factors such as; cultural factors, social factors, personal factors and psychological factors (Kotler, 2007:153).
Individual buying decisions are strongly influenced by psychological factors used by consumers in interaction. These factors are also a tool for consumers to recognize their feelings, collect and analyze information, formulate thoughts and opinions, and finally make decisions to purchases ……..

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Consumer Behavior in the Dimensions of Marketing Mix and Service Quality: Predicting Predictor and Response Variables

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 121 – 127
Date: 20 September 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Lingga Kencana

Lingga Kencana
Faculty Economics & Business, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

Abstract
This research aims to determine, analyze and predict the dimensions of marketing mix and service quality on consumer behavior in the next purchases. The research variables are 1) product (X1); 2) price (X2); 3) location (X3); 4) promotion (X4); 5) physical evidence (X5); 6) reliability (X6); 7) responsiveness (X7); 8) warranty (X8), and; 9) empathy (X9). Research analysis is logistic regression analysis to find influence and relation of response variable with one or more predictor variables and response variable that is continuous or categorical. The finding of research, can be concluded that the dimension of marketing mix can predict consumer behavior in next purchase. The dimension of service 1uality consisting of physical evidence, reliability, responsiveness, and warranty can predict consumer behavior in next purchases, whereas empathy can not predict consumer behavior in next purchases.

Keywords: Dimension of Marketing Mix, Dimension of Service Quality, Consumer Behavior, Predictions, and Response.

1. Introduction
A company that wants success in influencing consumer responses in a particular market must formulate a combination of marketing strategies appropriately and use marketing techniques that suits for its consumer behavior. One of the key elements in determining a marketing strategy is to know the marketing mix. According to Kotler (2000:18), the service marketing mix consists of 4 elements: product, price, location and promotion and becomes 7 with additional elements such as: process, people and physical evidence. Service marketing mix is a set of marketing tools used by companies to continuously achieve marketing objectives in their target markets.
Cafe business in Jember Regency grow quite rapidly, along with the increasingly crowded population of Jember and the development of education. Jember Regency is one of the educational base that has relatively a lot of State and Private Universities. Growing business in the field of cafe is shown by the proliferation of cafe business in the area of Jember, there are some homogeneous cafe such as Kolong Cafe, Brother Cafe, Acacia Cafe, and Corakna Café. Some of these cafes are similar in terms of its menu and service offering. The more selective consumers in choosing products and services that they will buy and the proliferation of cafe business in Sumbersari District, like a cafe that is considered a homogeneous, will certainly provide a competition in the market ……..

2. Literature Review
The marketing field should be able to optimize the marketing mix element, because the marketing mix is a controlled variable that can be used to reach consumers who are the target market. The marketing mix has 4 important elements; product, price, location, and promotion. Product is a thing that needeed and wanted by consumers to meet their perceived needs (Supranto, 2007:11). The five product levels are (Kotler, 2008:175); main products, generic products, expected products, additional products, and potential products. Price is the money a person pays for the right to use the product (Supranto, 2007:12). Pricing procedures to be used here include six stages; estimate the demand for goods, know firstly the reaction in the competition, determine the expected market share, choose a pricing strategy to reach the target market, consider the marketing politics of the company, and choose a certain price. Place is a combination of location and distribution channel, which is related to the way delivery of products and services through strategic location (Lupiyoadi, 2001:61). Promotions are a collection of different intensive tips, mostly short-term and designed to encourage faster or larger purchases of a particular products or services by the consumers. Promotional activities not only serve as a tool of communication between companies and consumers but also as a tool to influence consumers in the purchase or use of service in accordance with the their desires and needs ………

3. Research Method
The research design used can be classified as explanatory research, that is research which explain the relationship between variables through hypothesis testing with explanatory research (Tjiptono, 2004:56).
Population is an object that the researcher wants to know the magnitude of its characteristics (Sugiono, 2008:129). The population in this research are all customers of Kolong cafe, Brother cafe, Acacia cafe, and Corakna cafe.
Sampling method using multistage sampling method. The first stage uses purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is to select the sample that has certain considerations and characteristics in the desired amount (Sugiyono, 2008:130). The second stage uses proportional random sampling, is random sampling with the number of samples proportional to the number of members in each subpopulation (proportional) so that each sub-population has the same opportunity to be sampled. Proportional random sampling is done randomly to all customers of four selected cafes, but still in accordance with the criteria in purposive sampling (Arikunto, 2002:112).
Determination of the number of samples in this research refers to Ferdinand (2002:51), which suggests that the sample size depends on the number of indicators used are a number of latent variables. The number of samples is equal to the number of indicators ………..

Journal Full Text PDF: Consumer Behavior in the Dimensions of Marketing Mix and Service Quality: Predicting Predictor and Response Variables.

Market Segmentation and Service Group: Summarizing Segment Groupings and Similarities to Establish Clusters

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 54 – 63
Date: 7 September 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Lingga Kencana
Faculty of Economic and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, East Java, Indonesia

Abstract
This research is aimed to know and analyze the service market segment that is formed, and know the service group based on the similarity level among the existing service. The research variables are physical evidence, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and overall service. The research analysis is cluster analysis that serves to make group classification and summarize a number of objects to be less based on similarity or distance of inequality. Cluster analysis with two methods, namely K-Means Cluster and Cluster Hierarchy. The result of the research is the café consumer market segment that formed three Cluster groups, the first Cluster as “Cluster of Physical Evidence”, the second Cluster as “Cluster Guarantee”, and the third Cluster as “Cluster of Overall Service”. There are also three groups of cafes based on service at the similarity level between cafes, namely group one is Sister Cafe, the second group is the Grand Cafe and Cafe 14 Mili, and group 3 is Glovic Cafe.

Keywords; Segments, Services, Groups, Similarities, Summarizes, and Clusters

1. Introduction
………….. As product companies increasingly difficult to defer their physical products, they turn to service differentiation. In fact, many companies find profit when they deliver good services (Kotler, 2010:35). One of the profitable businesses is service from cafe or restaurant. Now, eating and relaxing in a cafe or fast food restaurant after school, college or work from home, it is a trend of adolescent and even executive lifestyle.
The entrepreneurs in the field of service products and services still required to follow a competitive competition. In addition, changes in the business environment is very fast to make entrepreneurs face an uncertain situation so that not a few entrepreneurs who out of business because unable to maintain the viability of his business. Market-oriented thinking is an inevitable necessity in this era of globalization. According Tjiptono (2004:97), the embodiment and complexity of services affect the way consumers evaluate services purchased.
Business competition in cafes or restaurants such as the Grand Cafe, Sister Cafe, Cafe 14 Mili and Glovic Cafe as some of the biggest cafes in Jember Regency is certainly very high. The area where the cafe is located is the basis of the education area because there are several universities within the same area as University of Jember, Muhammadiyah University, Jember State Polytechnic, Mandala University, Seruji University, and IKIP University. Employers must be smarter in responding to the situation…………

2. Literature Review
Parasuraman (in Tjiptono, 2004:14), there are five main dimensions that are arranged in the order of their relative importance, namely; 1) Physical evidence. A service cannot be seen, cannot be kissed, cannot be touched, so the aspect of physical evidence becomes important as a measure of service; 2) Reliability. This dimension covers two aspects, the first one is the company’s ability to provide services as promised. Second is how far the company is able to provide accurate or no error service; 3) Responsiveness. Customer expectations of service speed can almost certainly change with an upward trend over time. Responsiveness concerns the willingness and ability of employees to help customers and respond to their requests; 4) Guarantee. Employee behavior is able to foster customer trust in the company and the company can create a sense of security for its customers. Guarantee also means that employees are always polite and master the skills knowledge that customers need, and; 5) Empathy. Understand customer problems and act in the interests of customers, and give personal attention to customers and have comfortable operating hours.
The core of the marketing consists of three main steps, namely market segmentation, target market and positioning. These three steps are often called STP (market segmentation, market target and positioning). The first step is market segmentation, which is identifying and forming separate groups of buyers that may require their own product or marketing mix. The second step is the target market, which is the act of selecting one or several segments to enter or serve. The third step is positioning, which is the act of building and communicating the special basic benefits of products in the market, Tjiptono, 1997:69)………….

3. Research Methods
This research is a descriptive research using survey method. Survey research is a study undertaken to obtain benefits for descriptive purposes, assisting and comparing existing conditions with predetermined criteria as well as in evaluation execution (Umar, 2004:88). This research is oriented to know and analyze the segment of the service market that is formed, and the service group based on the similarity level among the existing service.
Population is a generalization area consisting of the object of a subject that has certain qualities and characteristics set by the researcher to be studied and then drawn conclusion (Sugiyono, 2005:90). The population in this study was all customers in the Grand Cafe, Sister Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe and Glovic Cafe which had the same overall use of the cafe service.
The sample is part of the population selected for use as a research object. This study uses purposive sampling as a sampling method with certain criteria (Indriantoro, 2002:116). Sampling criteria; 1) Customers who have used the entire service at the four cafes which include the Grand Café, the Sister Cafe, 14 Mili Cafe, and the Glovic Café, and; 2) Customers are among students from the 3 biggest universities in Jember Regency namely Jember of University, Muhammadiyah University, and Jember State Polytechnic. This makes it possible for respondents to better understand the object of research and the location of the cafe is also close to the three universities………….

Journal Full text PDF: Market Segmentation and Service Group: Summarizing Segment Groupings and Similarities to Establish Clusters.

The Influence of Organizational Culture and Work Discipline on Motivation and Performance of Banking Employees

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 29 – 38
Date: 3 September 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Ultafakoh Paranitha Dimulyo, Raden Andi Sularso, & Handriyono
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness
University of Jember
Jember, East Java, Indonesia

Abstract
This research was conducted on banking employees, and aimed at namely; 1) Analyzing the influence of organizational culture and work discipline on employee motivation and performance; 2) Analyzing the influence of motivation on employee performance. The method of determining respondents is using purposive sampling and a total of 115 employees banking. Data collection uses questionnaire with liqueur measurement. Data analysis uses path analysis. The results of the study are; 1) Organizational culture has a significant effect on the work motivation of employees of Bank Jatim Banyuwangi Branch. Organizational culture that has become a positive behavior of employees in working will increase work motivation; 2) Work discipline has a significant effect on the work motivation of employees of Bank Jatim Banyuwangi Branch. Work discipline that becomes a guideline and has been embedded in its employees will increase work motivation; 3) Organizational culture has a significant effect on the performance of employees of Bank Jatim Banyuwangi Branch. Organizational culture that has become the basis for behavior and development in the organization will improve employee performance; 4) Work discipline has a significant effect on the performance of employees of Bank Jatim Banyuwangi Branch. Work discipline that has become the basis of employees in working will improve employee performance; 5) Work motivation has a significant effect on the performance of employees of Bank Jatim Banyuwangi Branch. Work motivation that has become a strong impetus for employees to work will improve employee performance.

Keywords; Organizational Culture, Work Discipline, Motivation, Employee Performance, Banking Employees

1. Introduction
Organizational culture is one of the keys to the success of an organization. The role of culture has an important position in every institution or organization as a pillar that regulates the pattern of relationships in institutions, regulates the mechanism of the company and equalizes the harmony of internal factors and external companies. Other efforts that can be taken in order to improve the performance of company employees are by enforcing discipline in work. Work discipline is an attitude of obedience of employees who have joined in an organization against work rules, norms, instructions or provisions that apply in the organization. In addition, motivation as a driving force for individual workers both from within and from outside that moves a person in realizing needs so that motivation will improve employee performance will also improve company performance (Sopiah, 2008:13)………..

2. Literature Review
Organizational culture usually has values and beliefs that support organizational goals. Sedarmayanti (2013:75) states that organizational culture is a belief, attitude, and value that is generally owned, which arise in the organization. Value, refers to what is believed to be important about the way people and organizations behave. Norms are unwritten rules about behavior. Organizational culture is a subjective aspect of what happens within the organization, this refers to abstraction, such as values and norms.
Rivai (2004:71), there are four perspectives concerning work discipline, namely:1) Retributive discipline that is trying to punish those who do wrong; 2) Corrective discipline that is trying to help employees correct inappropriate behavior; 3) Perspective of individual rights that is trying to protect the basic rights of individuals during disciplinary actions; 4) A utilitarian perspective that focuses on the use of discipline only when the consequences of disciplinary action……..

3. Research Methodology
This study also uses intervening variables, namely variables that affect the independent variables and the dependent variable, in this study the intervening variables used are motivational variables. The population in this study was employees of Bank Jatim Banyuwangi Branch at the level of staff and employees of the informatics department. The sampling method uses purposive sampling. The determination of purposive sampling is to use the criteria of employees with staff and information technology levels, totaling 115 employees. Methods in collecting data using questionnaires, an information collection technique that allows researchers to study the attitudes, behaviors and characteristics of several people in an organization with measurements using a Likert scale using scores 1 to 5.
The independent variable in this study is the organizational culture and work discipline. Organizational Culture (X1), 5 indicators (Susetyo, 2014:84); 1) Settings; 2) Distance with superiors; 3) Trust; 4) Professionalism; 5) Integration. Work discipline (X2), 5 indicators of work discipline (Rivai, 2005:73), namely; 1) Attendance; 2) Compliance with regulations; 3) Compliance with work standards; 4) High alertness level; 5) Work ethically………

Journal Full text PDF: The Influence of Organizational Culture and Work Discipline on Motivation and Performance of Banking Employees.

Relationship Marketing Dimensions in Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: Logic and the Role of Intermediary Variables on Path Analysis

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 18 – 28
Date: 1 September 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Lingga Kencana
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness
University of Jember
Jember, East Java, Indonesia

Abstract
This study aims to determine and analyze the value and tendency of the influence of the role of intermediary satisfaction variables between financial benefit variables, social benefits, and structural benefits on customer loyalty variables, as well as analyzing the value and tendency of direct influence variables financial benefits social benefits, structural benefits to satisfaction variables and variables customer loyalty. The variables in the study are relationship marketing dimensions which consist of financial benefits (X1), social benefits (X2), structural benefits (X3), customer satisfaction (Z), and customer loyalty (Y). The analysis used is path analysis to analyze the influence relationship between variables and analyze the role of intermediary variables in mediating the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables. Logic models of gradual path analysis with intermediate variables will only provide an intermediary role in connecting one variable to another, not helping to increase or increase the value of the influence directly. The results show that satisfaction plays a role in mediating relationships with a positive direction and with a relatively low level of tendency between financial benefits, social benefits, and structural benefits to loyalty. In addition, relationship marketing dimensions that are shaped by financial benefits that can build a relationship with customers on the basis of financial benefits and other benefits to customers; Social benefits that can build a social relationship with customers through good communication, and; Structural benefits that can help customers and provide information about everything that customers need will create satisfaction and shape the loyalty of their customers.

Keywords; Dimension of Relationship Marketing, Satisfaction, Loyalty, Logic, Role of Intermediate Variables

1. Introduction
………. BRI, Bank BNI, Bank BTN and Bank Jatim were chosen because they had several achievements during the 2015 and 2016 periods, based on data from Bank Indonesia and the Regional Financial Economics Study of East Java Province. BRI, Bank BNI, Bank BTN, and Bank Jatim are able to achieve growth above the average National Bank in Indonesia and Banks in East Java, both in the category of total assets, Third Party Funds (Demand Deposits, Savings) and Credit (Productive and Consumptive). The total number of banks in Indonesia as many as 119 banks, BRI banks, BNI banks, BTN banks, and Bank Jatim achieved relatively good ratings for total assets and total loans, a relatively good rating for total third party funds, a relatively good rating for capital paid up, as well as a relatively good rating for profit before tax (BI, December 2016 unaudited). The banking strategy in maintaining and improving performance can be done by the strategies used by BRI, BNI, Bank BTN and Bank Jatim by using relationship marketing strategies. Kurtz in Lupiyoadi (2006:117), stated that relationship marketing can be developed through three levels, namely financial benefits, social benefits, and structural benefits………..

2. Literature Review
……….. Kotler (2003:70), satisfaction is a feeling of pleasure or disappointment someone who appears after comparing the expected performance (results). While Hasan (2008:58), customer satisfaction arises from an emotional response to the product used, especially when they compare perceived performance compared to expectations. Customer satisfaction is also a function of the difference between perceived performance and expectations. While customer satisfaction is a level of difference or incompatibility between perceived product performance and expected product performance. If performance is below expectations, customers feel dissatisfied. And vice versa, if the performance above expectations the customer feels satisfied or happy. The company’s goal is to create customers who are satisfied or happy, so that satisfied customers will provide benefits, such as making repeat purchases, disseminating good information to others about the company and creating customer loyalty or loyalty. The purpose of a company is to get profit or profit, where the profit is derived from the products and services they offer to consumers. Consumers are individuals who play an important role in achieving company goals, if these consumers make repeat purchases continuously in a long period of time, these consumers become customers. If the customer is loyal to the products and services offered by the company, of course the company will get profits from these customers…….

3. Research Methodology
………. The sampling method in this research is using multistage sampling. The first phase is to use cluster sampling as a determinant of banking which is considered credible with the status of state and private companies. The second stage is to use nonprobability sampling with purposive sampling technique as the determinant of respondents in the study that is indeed suitable as respondents. The purposive sampling technique with the criteria of respondents is the customer segment banking with priority categories (middle to upper class) in the four banks studied. The third stage is to use proportional sampling as a divider of the number of respondents that fits the needs in each unit of the object under study based on the total population in the object.
Determination of the number of samples in this study refers to the opinion of Roscoe (in Sekaran, 2006:253) that the sample size of more than 30 people and less than 500 is appropriate for most studies. Ferdinand (2002:51) suggests that the sample size depends on the number of indicators used in all variables. The sample size is the number of indicators multiplied by 5 to 10. Referring to Ferdinand the number of samples in this study were 105 customers who saved, obtained from 15 multiplied by 7. The number of samples in this study was 105 respondents……….

Journal Full text PDF: Relationship Marketing Dimensions in Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: Logic and the Role of Intermediary Variables on Path Analysis

Predict The Timeliness of Submitting Financial Statements

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 10 – 17
Date: 27 August 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Lingga Kencana and Fica Firmansari
Faculty of Economic and Bussiness
University of Jember
Jember, East Java, Indonesia

Abstract
This study aims to determine and analyze profitability, debt to equity ratio, external ownership structure, and auditor turnover in predicting the timeliness of reporting financial statements. The population used in this study was manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the years of 2015 to 2017. The sampling method in this study used purposive sampling method with a total sample of 150 companies for 3 years. The results of this study are profitability, debt to equity ratio, ownership structure, and changes in auditors can predict the timeliness of financial reporting Manufacturing Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange.

Keywords; Profitability, Debt to equity ratio, Ownership Structure, and Auditor Substitution, and Timeliness of Financial Reporting.

1. Intoduction
………….Every company that goes public has an obligation to submit financial statements prepared in accordance with financial accounting standards and has been audited on time. Demands for compliance with timeliness in the submission of public financial reports in Indonesia are regulated in Law No. 8 of 1995 concerning Capital Market and subsequently regulated in Decree of the Chairman of Bapepam No. 80 / PM / 1996. The regulation states that issuers and public companies must submit annual financial reports that have been audited by an independent accountant, no later than the end of the fourth month (120 days) after the date of the company’s financial statements. Bapepam tightened the regulation with the issuance of the Decree of the Chairman of the Capital Market Supervisory Agency Number 36 / PM / 2003 concerning the Obligation to Submit Periodic Financial Reports. Bapepam Regulation Number X.K.2 stated that the annual financial statement must be accompanied by an accountant’s report with an original opinion and submitted to Bapepam no later than the end of the third month (90 days) after the date of the financial statement. If the company is late in submitting financial statements, then administrative sanctions are imposed in accordance with the provisions that have been set sanctions and fines imposed on companies that are late in submitting heavy financial statements, but there are still companies that submit financial reports in a timely manner…………..

2. Literature Review
…………..The process of semi-annual financial statements; 1) not later than 60 days after the middle of the financial year if it is not accompanied by an accountant’s report; 2) not later than 90 days after the middle of the financial year, if accompanied by an accountant’s report in the context of a limited review; 3) no later than 120 days after the middle of the financial year the company ends if accompanied by a report from the accountant who gives an opinion about the fairness of the financial statements. However, since September 30, 2003, Bapepam has increasingly tightened regulations with the issuance of Bapepam Regulation Number X.K.2, Attachment to the Decree of the Chairman of Bapepam Number: KEP-36 / PM / 2003 concerning Obligations to Submit Periodic Financial Reports.
Timeliness is an important limitation on the publication of financial statements. The accumulation, summarization, and subsequent presentation of accounting information must be carried out as quickly as possible to ensure the availability of information now in the hands of the user. Timeliness also shows that financial statements must be presented at regular intervals to show changes in the state of the company in turn may affect predictions and user decisions (Hedriksen, 2000)…………..

3. Research Methodology
………The criteria used are; 1) Manufacturing companies that are consistently listed on the Stock Exchange in a row for the period 2015-2017 and never delisted; 2) Manufacturing companies that issue annual financial statements as of December 31 have been audited for three consecutive years, 2015-2017; 3) The company’s financial statements for the 2015-2017 period are stated in rupiah currency; 4) Display complete data and information used to analyze factors that affect the timeliness of the submission of financial statements for the 2015-2017 period. The sample used in this study were 50 manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange per year in the period of 2015, 2016, 2017, so that the number of samples was 50 x 3 periods = 150 samples……….

Journal Full text PDF: Predict The Timeliness of Submitting Financial Statements.