Geoelectric Exploration for Groundwater in Mbaitoli L.G.A. Imo State Nigeria using Resistivity Data

International Journal of Biology, Physics & Matematics
ISSN: 2721-3757, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 14 – 23
Date: 22 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Ikechukwu E. Nwosu & Happiness N. Iwuoha

Ikechukwu E. Nwosu & Happiness N. Iwuoha
Department of Physics, Imo State University
Owerri Nigeria

Abstract
Geoelectric survey carried out at Mbaitoli in Imo State of Southeastern Nigeria has shown that there is a potential for groundwater resource in this region. Vertical electric sounding utilizing the Schlumberger electrode configuration was used to survey 10 fairly well distributed points within the study Area. Interpretation of resistivity data within the area revealed 5-6 geoelectric layers within the area. The VES data was acquired using a resistivity metre with a maximum half current electrode separation of 400m. Furthermore the acquired data were interpreted using the combination of curve matching and computer iterative modeling techniques involving the Schlumberger software version 9.2. Results of the study revealed that aquifer depth varied from 83.2m at Alaenyi Ogwa to 169m at Umuduru Ifeakala with a mean value of 138.22m.The apparent resistivity varied from 338ohm-m at Obokpo Ubomiri to 161,000ohm-m at Ihite Afara with a mean value of 5,2904.8ohm-m. Aquifer thickness ranged from 24.9m at Umuowa Obokpo to 73.9m at Odumara Obi Orodo with a mean value of 48.81m.

Keywords: Apparent Resistivity, Aquiferous Zones, Geoelectric Layers, Geometric Factor, Schlumberger Configuration.

1. Introduction
This paper describes a geoelectric exploration for groundwater undertaken at Mbaitoli L.G.A. of Imo State, Southeastern Nigeria. The objectives are to study the occurrence of ground water in the Mbaitoli area of Imo State, determine the depth to water table and obtain the thickness of aquiferous zones.
Groundwater is the water found underground on the cracks and spaces of soil, sand, and rocks where it is stored and moves slowly through geologic formations (called aquifers). Groundwater is globally important and a valuable renewable resource for human life and economic development. An estimated 2 billion people worldwide rely on ground water for their drinking water supply Morris et al (2003).
In general, geoelectric measurements enable the electric resistivity of the subsurface to be determined. The interpretation of data from such measurements yields useful information on the structure and composition of these subsurface layers. Resistivity techniques are well established and widely used to solve a variety of geotechnical and geological problems (Ward; 1990). The primary purpose of the resistivity method is to measure the potential differences on the surface due to the current flow within the ground. Many research works have been done using electrical resistivity method. These include; Uma (1989) who carried out a study on the groundwater resources of Imo river basin using hydrological data from existing boreholes and concluded that three aquifer systems (confined, unconfined and semi-confined aquifers) exist in the area. Mbonu, et al (1990) carried out seventeen Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) in parts of Umuahia area for the generation of aquifer parameters. Agbodike I.I.C. et al (2013) used electrical resistivity method to determine the depth and thickness of the aquiferous zones in the Oru area of Imo-State ……..

2. Location and Geomorphology of the Study Area
The survey area lies within latitudes 50 31’N and 50 4’N and longitude 60 56’E to 70 08’E (Ofodile, 2001). The designated area covers about 204km2. It has a population of 237,555 with 31 autonomous communities. The town comprises such communities as Umunoha, Afara, Ifakala, Orodo, Ubomiri, Egbeada, Idem Ogwa, Awo Mbieri, Alaenyi Ogwa, Abazu Ogwa and Ochi Ogwa among others Emmanuel et al (2014). The map of this study area is shown in figure 1. It lies within the tropical rain forest belt of Nigeria with luxuriant growth of trees, it has humid tropical climate with high temperature and seasonal rainfall. Two main climate seasons characterized the study area namely: dry and rainy seasons. The rainy season starts from April to October with a mean annual rainfall of about 1,500mm to 2000mm. The dry season extends from November to March, in between this period harmattan occurs. The area has an average annual temperature above 200C which creates an annual relative humidity of 75%. The study area is drained by both surface water and groundwater ………

Journal Full Text PDF: Geoelectric Exploration for Groundwater in Mbaitoli L.G.A. Imo State Nigeria using Resistivity Data.

Effect Of Political Violence In Nigeria

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 1 – 10
Date: 7 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Umar Lawal Aliyu

Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty Of Management, Department Of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, USA

Abstract
Political violence is violence outside of state control that is politically motivated. Some political scientists see political violence as part of “contentious politics” or collective political struggle, which includes such things as revolutions, civil war, riots and strikes, but more peaceful protest movements. Crime and warfare share some attributes with political violence, but political scientists do not define them as political violence. Political violence is violence perpetrated by people or governments to achieve political goals. It can describe violence used by a state against other states or against non-state actors. It can also describe politically motivated violence by non-state actors against a state or against other non-state actors. Political violence is violence perpetrated by people or governments to achieve political goals. … At other times, governments use force in order to defend their country from outside invasion or other threats of force and to coerce other governments or conquer territory. For democracy to be at equitable standard and delivery politicians that improve masses welfare and mensch must be informed to vote and hold politicians accountable in the event of any eventual pitfall because most politicians often manage to secure votes by stirring up greed, rivalry, or fear. Improving democracy therefore requires that we must find ways to reduce the role that greed, rivalry and fear play in the electoral process, especially in young democracies such as those in Africa. However, the study aimed at determining the causes and level of the effect of political violence in Nigeria.

Keywords: Crime, Democracy, Election, Offence, Political violence, Politicians, Rivalry, Vote.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Greed, rivalry, fear or egomania, few among others in politics have been among causes of political violence. Critical examination of the causes of the political violence in Nigeria revealed that the immediate causes of the phenomenon in the country include imposition of candidates on party members. Others are, lack of democratic institutions and culture; the prevailing political mind of- set of do – or die and winner takes- all; partisanship of law enforcement agencies; lack of prompt judicial response to the cases of electoral offences, the general socioeconomic downturn that has rather remained unaddressed over the years. The fundamental question is; what can be done to reduce the role of malfeasant electoral strategies like vote-buying, lack of democratic institutions and culture; the prevailing political mind of- set of do – or die and winner takes- all; partisanship of law enforcement agencies; lack of prompt judicial response to the cases of electoral offences, ethnic polarization, or violent intimidation? However, encouraging empowerment and creating awareness campaign encouraging Nigerian voters to oppose electoral violence may reduce it to a minimal level.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Nigeria is a country of overlapping regional, religious, and ethnic divisions. Rifts between the North and the South of the country, ethnic groups, and Islam and Christianity often coincide and have sometimes resulted in political or sectarian violence.
Since the end of military rule, Nigeria’s elites have largely cordoned off national presidential elections from sectarian divisions by predetermining presidential and vice presidential victors. Their People’s Democratic Party (PDP) nominates one southern Christian and one northern Muslim for the presidency and vice presidency. Every eight years the party rotates the office for which it nominates Christian and Muslim candidates. Excluded as it is from this process of political horse-trading, known as zoning, Nigeria’s ethnically and religiously fractured public has become increasingly indifferent to the country’s national electoral politics. The question is why it must always be Muslim/Christian candidates and why not Muslim/Muslim or Christian/ Christian? Evidence we find suggests political parties formed along ethnic divides are more prone to violence, which leads us to argue in favour of the reciprocal-vote approach …………

2. Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Different researchers have examined the link between election outcome, electoral participation and electoral violence but all have limited their theories and views to how they see it according to their perspective field of study. Hickman (2009) examines the impact of violence on voter turnout and election results in Sri Lanka. According to him, violence perpetrated by individuals associated with one political party, leads to a reduction in turnout for the opposition or another party. Another paper using the Afrobarometer data from Nigeria shows that vote buying is far more effective than violence (Bratton, 2008). Bratton also demonstrates that the most common response to any form of \illegitimate campaigning”, e.g. violence or vote buying, is abstention. We extend this literature by examining multiple countries and looking at heterogeneity in the impact of violence ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: Effect Of Political Violence In Nigeria.

Role of Computer in Economic Development

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 189 – 197
Date: 29 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty of Management, Department of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, USA

Abstract
The trust of the paper is therefore to examine and assess the role of computer in economic development. It can hardly be denied that computers have considerably changed the lives of human beings. These days, majority of us cannot imagine our lives without them. A number of organizations have recognized the importance of computer technology to the extent that they use computer in whatever they do. In fact, computer has come a long way since it was first invented and the power of technology in the spotlight is virtually all over the world. However, as the world progresses on in this never-ending chase for good and better standard of living, it is undeniable that computer science has made astounding progress in growth and development of most countries all over the world. Although computers are bringing the evolution of technology and changing the way lives are lived, it cannot be denied that there are areas where the computer has disadvantages. For example, it will be good to note that even though computers are introduce with the view of making things easier for those who use them but it has also become an avenue for the easiest fraud to take place in the whole world because it has one Logo: “Garbage in – Garbage Out. As the 21st century looms ahead, it is clear to see that it has advancements that humanity may never have dreamed of, one of these shining developments is the well-recognized services, achievements and growth, and development computer has caused in countries all over the world. The accurate knowledge and use of computers has brought change in a big and astonishing way, as it has led to the demolition of illiteracy, and lead to optimism, efficiency, productivity and high quality growth and development all over the world.

Keywords: Computer, Development, Economic Growth, Economic Growth, Organization, Technology.

1. Introduction
Computer is an electronic device, which is capable of receiving information (data) in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals. A computer is a machine or device that performs processes, calculations and operations based on instructions provided by a software or hardware program.
It is designed to execute applications and provides a variety of solutions by combining integrated hardware and software components. The computer industry began in the late forties with a very small initial investment but as today increase in both strength and importance. When one looks back with analytical mind, we can conclude that computer technology keeps on advancing with remarkable increase in speed, accuracy and reliability. Computing in whatever field, science, management, business, agriculture, and industry etc. is reaching directly or indirectly into various aspects of our society thereby, without loss of generality has shrunk the world into such a compactness that no part can afford to lack behind or live in isolation.
Run this thought experiment: think of devices or process in your place of work, which in some way or another are backed by computers. Now, think about what the state of affairs were like before computers began doing those tasks. Think of the level of productivity before and after. Computers make human productivity easier, faster and higher. Rather than struggling to precisely cut out metal shapes by hand for hours, a computer guided CNC machine using the coordinates on the metal sheet are fed into the computer system which can have such cut out in a matter of seconds and hundreds- if not thousands cut out in a matter of a few hours. Computers facilitate the capturing and storing of data, performing calculations to turn the data into information, and communicating both the data and information. They also can control things without constant human intervention, freeing human effort to create wealth. Computers are just the latest advance in information storage and communication, a process that began in ancient Sumer about 6,000 years ago with the invention of writing and the evolution of arithmetic.
Information is essential for economic growth and development; computers are the most recent advancement. Computers improve calculations, Foster new empirical techniques, New data management and production, Removing theoretical strictures, Helping theorem-proving, Replacing theorem-proving, New markets requiring new modes of analysis, New models of behaviour and market interactions inspired by computer science ……

Journal Full Text PDF: Role of Computer in Economic Development.

Effect of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Nigeria’s Economic Growth

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 178 – 188
Date: 28 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Umar Lawal Aliyu

Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty of Management, Department of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, USA

Abstract
This study examined and assessed the empirical link on the effect of fiscal and monetary policy on the Economic Growth of Nigeria. Establishing financial stability and economic growth entails conscious actions by regulatory agencies to stem wide fluctuations in the key macroeconomic indicators. The high point of economic growth of any country include, strengthening the Financial Stability Committee within the its financial institutions, establishment of macro-prudential rules, developing capital markets, development of directional economic policy and of course most importantly the monetary and fiscal policies. The objectives were to determine factors of fiscal and monetary policy that contributed to the growth of Nigeria economy. It made use of data from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Bulletin, journals and employed the ordinary least squares method of statistical analysis. In the research work we he have understood that monetary policy is implemented primarily by the monetary authorities, particularly the central bank, while fiscal policy is implemented by the fiscal authorities, particularly the Ministry of Finance or Treasury. Although monetary and fiscal policies pursue the same ultimate objective, i.e. the attainment of high, stable and sustainable economic growth, they employ different instruments. The research study has noticed that the objectives of monetary policy are ultimately similar to the objectives of fiscal policy and they play crucial role in providing sustainable and credible economic stability in a country, thus creating the environment fast economic growth. The research recommends that policy makers should pay attention to monetary and fiscal variables in their attempt to maintain fiscal stability.

Keywords: Central Bank, Development, Economic Growth, Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Governments all over the world formulate and implement policies for taxation and public spending. These policies can have major impacts on economic growth, income distribution, and poverty, and thus they tend to be at the centre of economic growth and development. Essentially, monetary policy refers to the combination of discretionary measures designed to regulate and control the money supply in an economy by the monetary authorities with a view of achieving stated or desired macro-economic goals. Another point of view posits that monetary policy refers to any conscious action undertaken by the monetary authorities to change or regulate the availability, quantity, cost or direction of credit in any economy, in order to attain stated economic objectives (Nwankwo, 2000).
Fiscal Policy is the process by which Government uses public expenditure, debt, taxation and other revenues to influence economic activities with a view to achieving the set macroeconomic objectives of full employment, favourable balance of payment, price stability and output growth among others. Okunrounmu (2003) described fiscal policy as the deliberate changes in the levels of government expenditure, taxes and other revenue as well as borrowing with a view to achieving national goals or objectives such as price stability, full employment, economic growth and balance of payments equilibrium.
Macroeconomic policy plays crucial role in providing sustainable and credible economic stability in a country, thus creating the environment for fast economic growth. This task is primarily achieved through monetary and fiscal policies as its fundamental components …….

2. Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the per cent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP, (Joseph Schumpeter). While economic development is the growth of the standard of living of a nation’s people from a low-income (poor) economy to a high-income (rich) economy. When the local quality of life is improved, there is more economic development. When social scientists study economic development, they look at many things. As observed by Akpakpan (1999), economic development is used to describe the process of improvement in the various aspects of the economy and the society it supports. The improvement is usually shown in the kinds of desirable changes such as reduction in the level of unemployment, degree of personal and regional inequalities, level of absolute poverty and increase in the real output of goods and services. Others areas of desirable changes include improvement in literacy, housing, health services and in the production capacity. The primary reason for desiring economic development or growth is to raise the general standard of living within the economy. Thus, Economic growth has received much attention among scholars.
Economic growth has long been considered an important goal of economic policy with a substantial body of research dedicated to explaining how this goal can be achieved. Historically, there has been a wide divergence of opinions about the effect of monetary and fiscal policies on the economy. These theories were developed on observed economic trend in both developed and ………

Journal Full Text PDF: Effect of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Nigeria’s Economic Growth.

Affordability and Willingness to Pay for Private Sector Participation in the Provision of Portable Water in Urban Areas of Benue State, Nigeria

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 187 – 194
Date: 18 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Ogebe, F.O, & Idoko, D.A.

Ogebe, F.O, & Idoko, D.A.
Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
Department of Agricultural Education, College of Education Oju, Benue State, Makurdi, Nigeria

Abstract
The study was conducted to determine the willingness to pay among households for provision of quality drinking water by private sector participation in three urban areas of Benue State, Nigeria. A survey method was used for the study and primary data were collected using well-structured questionnaire. The population of the study consisted of head of households. Random sampling technique was used in selecting 100 households each from the three major towns in Benue State. The study utilized the contingent valuation method to survey the views of the consuming public in order to estimate their willingness to pay in a bid to evaluate a policy of providing better water supply with improved quality and reliability among different socio- economic groups in the urban areas of Benue State, Nigeria. Descriptive and Probit regression model were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the major sources of water supply were hand dug wells (27.33%), private bore holes (23.33%) and water tankers (16.67%). Improved water provision was viewed as a national goal by the households. On the average, household spent N13000 as monthly water bill in the State. Majority (40%) hold the view that private sector participation (PSP) in the water sector would improve water provision. The results of the probit regression model showed that the variables that significantly influenced willingness to pay for water improvement programme (WIP) in the State are household size (P<0.05), income level of household head (P<0.1), private sector involvement (P<0.01) and the level of education of the household head (P<0.1). The study concludes that although the consuming households believe that private sector engagement is likely to improve water quality, the same policy measure will marginalize the poor in terms of access to water. The study therefore, recommended privatization with some social programmes so as to deliver the double dividends of quality and universal access that characterized the debate on private sector engagement in water provision in Nigeria.

Keywords: Probit Model, Willingness to Pay, Contingent Valuation, Nigeria

1. Introduction
Access to portable water is a fundamental human right and also a big stake in the economic growth, poverty reduction and sustainable development (World Development Report, 2004). All over the world, there is increased pressure on public water supplies and other utility services as a result of rapid urbanization. Lack of portable water supplies continue to be a major source of human disease and death globally (Sobsey, 2006). The most susceptible to water borne diseases are children, and the elderly, pregnant women and immune-compromised individuals, making water borne diseases one of the five leading causes of death among children under age five (Gerba et al., 1996) Diarrhea diseases, attributed to poor water supply, sanitation and hygiene, accounts for 1.73 million deaths each year and over 54million Disability Adjusted Life Years, a total equivalent to 3.7% of the global burden of disease (WHO, 2003).
In most parts of Africa, universal access to portable water remains a mirage because of the high population growth rates and the lack of funds by the government to provide the necessary facilities to boost water supply. Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.1 billion people in the world (Mintz et al., 2001). Public water supply is inadequate and in most cases inaccessible, the supply is intermittent and unreliable, thus resulting in high dependency on unsafe supplementary sources such as ponds, wells and streams (Olajire and Imeppeoria, 2001, Nnodu and Ilo, 2002).As population grows and urbanization increases, human activities including indiscriminate refuse and waste disposal, and the use of septic tanks, soak-away pits and pit latrines are on the increase. According to Longe and Balogun (2010), ground water pollution has been attributed to the process of urbanization which has progressively developed over time without any regard to environmental consequences. This eventually results in the deterioration of physical, chemical and biological properties of water (Isikwue et al., 2011).
In Nigeria, the most secure sources of safe drinking water is pipe-borne water from municipal water treatment plants which often do not deliver or fail to meet the requirement of the served communities due largely to lack of maintenance or increased population (Orebiyi et al., 2010). Currently, there is a challenge of lack of supply of pipe-borne water in Benue State, Nigeria and hence households are forced to use unreliable and unsafe sources of water like water vendors, small streams and shallow wells. This is insufficient to supply adequate water for rapid population increase. In Benue State, the water supply is ……….

2. Empirical Model and Method
The study was conducted in three urban areas of Benue State, Makurdi, Nigeria. Namely Makurdi, Otukpo and Gboko. These towns having varying systems of water supply and would help the respondents to correctly react to the use of private sector participation in improving water supply. Benue state lies within the lower river Benue in the Middle Belt region of Nigeria. Its geographic coordinates are longitudes 70 47 and 100 0E, and latitudes 60 25 and 80 8N. The State shares a common boundary with the Republic of Cameroun to the South East, and occupies a total landmass of 32,518km2 with a population of ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: Affordability and Willingness to Pay for Private Sector Participation in the Provision of Portable Water in Urban Areas of Benue State, Nigeria.

Impact of Central Bank of Nigeria in Nigeria’s Economic Growth

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 170 – 177
Date: 14 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty of Management, Department of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, United State of America – USA

Abstract
This paper examines and assesses the effects of Central Bank of Nigeria’ (CBN) economic growth. The traditional functions of a central bank include formulating and implementing monetary policy, determining interest rates and directing money supply – to achieve price stability; regulating and supervising the banking and financial systems, managing foreign reserve and ensuring the stability of financial markets. The empirical works of King and Levine (1993) who, in a cross country study comprising data from 77 countries over the period 1960-1989, found that the level of financial development stimulates economic growth. Consequently, the Central Banks of Nigeria (CBN) have considered ways by using both traditional and unconventional monetary policy instruments to foster growth in Nigeria. The findings from the study revealed that the state of economic development in Nigeria is invariably associated with extent of the growth and development of the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Development finance. According to R.S. Sayers ‘The Central Bank is the organ of Government that undertakes the major financial operations of the Government and by its conduct of these operations and by other means influences the behaviour of financial institutions so as to support the economic growth. The findings from the study revealed that the state of economic development in Nigeria is invariably associated with the roles the Central Bank of Nigeria’s plays in promoting economic growth and development.

Keywords: Central Bank, Development, Economic Growth, Instruments, Monetary Policy.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
It is well acknowledged in economics literature that Central Bank of a country irrespective of the country’s economic or political policies play a major role in promoting economic development through trying to achieve price stability; regulating and supervising the banking and financial systems, managing foreign reserve and ensuring the stability of financial markets. In this regard, for an economy to grow, it should have a well-developed and stable banking system that is resilient to external shocks, which will effectively play the role of financial intermediation. However, enabling healthy financial sector evolution entails the CBN reviewing the basic one-size-fits-all model of banking. This has made possible the emergence of international, national, regional, mono-line and specialized banks such as non-interest banks, etc., with different capital requirements commensurate to the depth of their operations.
Economic growth has long been considered an important goal of economic policy with a substantial body of research dedicated to explaining how this goal can be achieved. One of the earliest works on banking performance and economic growth was ……

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The current liquidity issue and the inadequate lending to the real sector that could result to economic growth have generated considerable discussions. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has risen up to these challenges by ensuring that liquidity in the banking system is adequate and that sectoral credit allocation to the sensitive sectors of the economy (Agriculture, Power, Aviation and SMEs) that will impact on the real sector for growth are handled with all the attention required. In Nigeria, empirical works that focused explicitly on banking sector performance and economic growth have yielded mixed results. Some of these works suggest that banking sector performance has affected positively and significantly on economic growth (see; Adelakun, 2010) while others reported an insignificant relationship between banking sector performance and economic growth ……..

2. Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Framework
In Nigeria, the financial system is the hub of productive activity, as it performs the vital roles of financial intermediation and effecting good payments system, as well as assisting in monetary policy implementation. According to Ofanson et al. (2010) the process of financial intermediation involves the mobilization and allocation of financial resources through the financial (money and capital) markets by financial institutions (banks and non-banks) and by the use of financial instruments (savings, securities and loans).
This paper adopts classical theory of political economy and development in evaluation the relationship between Central Bank and economic growth and development ………

Journal Full Text PDF: Impact of Central Bank of Nigeria in Nigeria’s Economic Growth.

Weapons of Mass Destruction and Modern Terrorism: Implications for Global Security

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 153 – 165
Date: 4 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Okoro, O. Ike & Oluka, N. Lucas

Okoro, O. Ike
Department of Intelligence and Security Studies, Novena University
Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria

Oluka, N. Lucas
Department of Political Science, Novena University
Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria

Abstract
The peril of biological, chemical and nuclear weapon (weapons of mass destruction, wmd) intercalating the bags of terrorist is the biggest crimes and challenges against humanity. Every such crimes and challenges earn to be named appropriately; and state actors experiencing such; owe it to their citizens to act speedily and with certainty against terrorist. Even with the on-going war on terrorism, there have been surge in terrorist activities in some parts of the world. Terrorists in our contemporary age have also embraced startling trends in their operational mode since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, D. C. The devastating effect of these twin attacks has raised global concern about the potential use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by the Al-Qaeda, ISIS and their affiliate groups. This study therefore, attempt to access the implication and impact of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) if found in the hands of terrorists. The study also examined the concept of terrorism and WMD. The general implication of the use of WMD and the challenges they might pose to the international community were also examined. The study suggests appropriate counter-measures to thwart terrorists’ effort to acquire WMD. The study adopted qualitative analysis as its research method to analyse the WMD sophistication adopted by new terrorism particularly by the ISIS terrorist network, and the al-Qaeda and their other affiliate groups. In other words, historical research is most appropriate in this study, and secondary source of data was adopted as its methodology.

Keywords: Weapons of Mass Destruction, Modern Terrorism, International Community, Intelligence Community, Global Security, Nuclear Weapons

1.1 Introduction
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and modern terrorism are now common discourse in global security. Virtually all the terrorist organizations in this modern or contemporary period are interested in acquiring them since these weapons have the potential of wreaking havocs and cause damage on targeted populations, evident in the Syria sarin gas effect, and other domestic attacks carried out by national and domestic terrorists (Jaspal,2008). Since the emergence of the al-Qaeda terrorist organization and the twin terrorist attack on the Towers of the World Trade Centre in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia U.S.A where passenger air liner were used as weapons of mass destruction to kill over 3,000 people on September 11, 2001, U.S Intelligence agency and the International Intelligence Community (IIC) are now questioning the efforts and interests of al- Qaeda terrorist organization, the Islamic state of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), the Taliban and their affiliate groups in acquiring biological, chemical, nuclear and radiological weapons (Imobighe,2006;Reshmi2013:9). The most feared threats from terrorists today are the increasing use of modern technology and the deployment of WMD in its miniaturized form. The effects of chemical and biological agents are very deadly and a single weapon like the size of an apple fruit could kill and maim thousands of people within the shortest period of time. Barrack Obama in one of his analysis said WMD may not be bigger than apple front size that if exploded can kill a continent. Tokyo subway attack of 1995 is a good example of the use of WMD, where coordinated multiple-point terrorist attack in which the odourless, colourless, and highly toxic nerve gas sarin was released in the city’s subway system. The attack resulted in the death of 13 people, and some 5,500 others were injured to varying degrees. Members of the Japan-based new religious movement AUM Shinrikyo were later identified as the perpetrators of the attacks. The ISIS has emerged today as the most ruthless and successful of the Sunni Jihadist organization in Iraq and Syria. The activity is so extreme and demonic to the extent that most well-known radical Jihadist group distanced themselves from them and publicly condemned their actions, and even attacked them directly (RevazBeshidze, 2002:3; Sekulow, et al, 2014).
Al-Qaeda, ISIS, Taliban, Boko Haram and other terrorist organizations today have adopted more radical approach to carry out their demonic acts on their target which is usually densely populated areas inhibited by the Christians, Muslims and the Jews regarded as infidels in the Middle East and other parts of the world. The threat of the use of WMD bombs and the global spread of the al-Qaeda splitter terrorist organisations, and ISIS led by Abu Bukr al-Baghdadi have attracted the attention ……….

1.2 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The main aim of this study is to examine WMD and modern terrorism. While the specific objectives are to:
a. Access the implications of WMD and the challenges it might pose while in the hands of terrorist networks especially al-Qaeda and ISIS;
b. Examine the appropriate countermeasure to thwart terrorists (particularly al-Qaeda, ISIS and affiliate groups’ efforts) to acquire WMD.

1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions are intended to give direction to this study:
a. What will be the implication of WMD in the hands of terrorists ‘organisation?
b. What are the appropriate countermeasures put in place to thwart terrorist’s effort to acquire WMD?

1.4 Methodology
This study adopted explorative, comparative and qualitative analysis to access the implication of WMD in the hands of modern terrorists particularly …….

Journal Full Text PDF: Weapons of Mass Destruction and Modern Terrorism: Implications for Global Security.

Analyzing the Nexus of Social Sustainability with Hierarchical Modification and Agency Viability Among Commissioned Military Intelligence Operatives of Defense Intelligence Agency

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 146 – 152
Date: 4 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Okoro, Ike O.

Okoro, Ike O.
Department of Intelligence and Security Studies, Novena University
Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria

Abstract
This paper substantiates the nexus of social sustainability with hierarchical modification and agency viability among commissioned military intelligence operatives of Defense Intelligence Agency. A descriptive study subsequent with a correlation configuration was utilized to determine the objective of this study. The statistical population was mostly commissioned military intelligence operatives of Nigerian Defense Intelligence Agency and a sample size of 300 commissioned military intelligence operatives; two hundred and forty two (242) men and fifty eight (58) women were arbitrarily picked utilizing the stratified random sampling methods. The data accumulation instruments were Social Sustainability Questionnaire, Standard Military Hierarchical Improvement Scale and Agency viability survey using Parsons’ Adaptation, Goal Attainment, Integration, Latency module (AGIL). Accordingly, the one-sample t-test data, Pearson correlation coefficient, linear regression analysis, F-test and independent t-test were applied to assess the data. The outcome of this study suggested that the contingency of social sustainability, hierarchical modification and Agency viability among commissioned military Intelligence operatives were highly significant and in demand. Additionally, social sustainability and hierarchical modification were altogether and emphatically related and social sustainability was essentially associated with subscales of Agency viability. Furthermore, social sustainability could predict 1.6% of the conflict in hierarchical modification and 2.9% of contradictions in Agency viability.

Keywords: Social Sustainability, Hierarchical Modification, Agency Viability, Nigerian Defense Intelligence Agency, Independent, Module

1. Introduction
The provision of human resources is one of the most important conditions required for increasing performance and augmenting Agency viability. Simultaneously, social sustainability can be considered as a critical mental factor in a job environment that influences the implementation of Human Resources. The fundamental belief of agency viability is making positive, reasonable and productive changes which help commissioned military intelligence operatives, groups and agencies to understand their true abilities and effectively partake in the accomplishments of the agency (Gigerenzer and Selten, 2008). Characteristically, hierarchical modification and agency viability are formative notions in every agency and are achieved through the application of four diverse methodologies. First, the goal attainment or objective fulfillment approach in which hierarchical modification is carefully weighed as far as accomplishing targets and exceptional results for acknowledging what was developed by the agency. Second the framework asset approach in which the hierarchical modification is characterized on its capacity to acquire inputs, utilize and prepare them, create results and keep up the strength and manageability of the agency. Third is the strategic appurtenance approach in which hierarchical modification and agency viability have the capacity to satisfy the requests of those commissioned military intelligence operatives in the chain of importance; encompassing conditions which are required to sustain the agency. Fourth, the combative appraisal approach which affirms that hierarchical modification and agency viability require the acknowledgment of every single key variable influencing the performance of the chain of importance and the strategy for relating these factors to each other (Ransom, 2002).
Viability guarantees agency wellbeing and smoothens the way for realizing objectives of the agency. This principal objective can be accomplished through making persistent changes, lessening the level of internal clashes and expanding the agency capability to be unquestionably in accordant with the present and future conditions and the environment and acknowledge ……..

2. Material and Methods
A descriptive method following a correlation module was adopted for this study. Statistical population, statistical sample and methods for sampling: the statistical population of commissioned military intelligence operatives in Defense Intelligence Agency estimated at less than 1200 essentials was incorporated for this study. Among these essentials, 300 operatives were chosen based on Morgan’s table utilizing the stratified random sampling methods.
Data Collection Tools: In the present examination, the data accumulation apparatuses were three polls which are as follows: The 24-thing social sustainability poll which is scored in light of a Likert-sort scale; the 31-thing hierarchical modification scale that inspects the successful administrative abilities and hierarchical modifications in an agency and is scored utilizing a 5-point Likert-sort scale and the 28-thing Agency Viability Inventory( Parson’s AGIL worldview) which included 4 subscales, i.e. advancement/consistence, agency responsibility/target obtaining, job fulfillment/solidarity and agency wellbeing /keeping up the paradigms and each of these subscales included seven substances ………

Journal Full Text PDF: Analyzing the Nexus of Social Sustainability with Hierarchical Modification and Agency Viability Among Commissioned Military Intelligence Operatives of Defense Intelligence Agency.

Predicting Overpressures in Niger Delta Formations Using Interval Transit Times Versus Depth Plots

International Journal of Biology, Physics & Matematics
ISSN: 2721-3757, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 65 – 71
Date: 27 September 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Ikechukwu E. Nwosu & Ngozi B. Ewurum

Ikechukwu E. Nwosu & Ngozi B. Ewurum
Department of Physics, Imo State University
Owerri, Nigeria

Abstract
This study considered the confirmation of the presence of overpressures in three Niger Delta Well -sites; two within Port Harcourt Nigeria (PNW2 and PNE1) and one within Warri Nigeria (WSW2). Here we adopted the interval transit time method for confirmation of overpressure after speculating the presence from other methods. We used interval transit times data from depths of about 4000ft and below since almost all recorded reservoirs and overpressures in Niger Delta fell below this depth. PNW2 revealed the presence of overpressure at the depth of about 13,500ft affecting a total thickness of 2,500ft; PNE1 had overpressure at approximately 10,000ft that extended to about 14,500ft covering a thickness of 4,500ft, the maximum overpressure occurred at 1400ft ; while WSW2 showed a transition from normal pressure trend to overpressure at about 13,100ft with a total overpressure thickness of about 5,000ft. The plots were made on semi – log coordinates.

Keywords: Effective Pressure, Interval Velocities, Poisson’s Ratio, Pore Pressures, Stacking Velocities.

1. Introduction
Seismic methods, in conjunction with other tools, can provide the means to predict reservoir pressure in many cases. Overpressured shales can act as good reservoir seals, but can also cause drilling difficulties, particularly in maintaining an adequate safety margin for the drilling mud weight. Seismic techniques are based on the impact of reservoir pressure on the seismic velocities (primarily compressional waves). The concept of pore pressure prediction from acoustic data was initially explored in the 1960’s. [15] was among the first to describe a method for predicting pore pressures from sonic log data. [7] presented a mathematical expression which related sonic travel times to pore pressure. [16] described how velocities derived from seismic data could be used for pore pressure prediction. All methods take advantage of the fact that sonic velocities depend on the effective pressure and hence the pore pressure.
Determination of formation velocities from seismic data has been known and utilized for many years [10]; [5]; [4]; [11], and several methods of computing these velocities, frequently using high-speed data handling, exist [1]; [20]; [2]; [3]. All these methods are based on the elementary reflection analysis, summarized by [15]. The determination of porosity and pore pressures from seismic measurements has been a topic of primary importance for many years [6]; [17]; [9]. The physical basis for this has been the often-observed correlations between seismic velocity and porosity, and between porosity and effective pressure. Anomalously high pore pressure zones are often associated with high porosities and low seismic velocities.
[13] was probably first to record the decrease of Poisson’s Ratio with decreasing differential pressure in room-dry granite and dolomite samples. [18] also presented this effect and proposed the use of Poisson’s ratio to identify saturating fluids. [12] stated that the Vp/Vs ratio in gas-saturated rocks increases with increasing differetial ……

2. Geology of Study Area
The Niger Delta Basin was formed by a failed rift junction during separation of the South American plate and the African plate, as well as the opening of the South Atlantic. Rifting in this basin started in the late Jurassic and ended in the mid Cretaceous eras. As rifting continued, several faults formed, many of them thrust faults. Also at this time we have the deposition of the syn-rift sands and then shales in the late cretaceous. This shows that there was a regression in the early basin. Within this time the basin has been undergoing extension by high angle normal faults and fault block rotation. Then by the beginning of the Paleocene there was a large transgression. [8] Then in the Paleocene the Akata Formation was deposited. In the Eocene the Agbada Formation was deposited. This caused the underlying shale Akata Formation to be squeezed into shale diapirs. Then in the Oligocene the Benin formation was deposited and it’s still being deposited today. The overall basin is divided into a few different zones due to its tectonic structure [14]. There is an extensional zone, which lies on the continental shelf that is caused by the thickened crust. There is a transition zone, and then there is a contraction zone, which lies in the deep sea part of the basin ……..

Journal Full Text PDF : Predicting Overpressures in Niger Delta Formations Using Interval Transit Times Versus Depth Plots.

Effects of Agricultural Subsector Production and Farm Management Practices on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Cameroon

Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1 Issue 1, page 28 – 35
Date: 19 September 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Djomo, C. R. F., Ogebe, F. O., & Ukpe, U. H.

Djomo, C. R. F.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Federal University of Wukari
Taraba State, Nigeria. P.M.B 1020 Wukari

Ogebe, F. O., & Ukpe, U. H.
Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Agriculture
Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. P.M.B 2373 Makurdi

Abstract
The Agricultural sector and its management practices play a significant role in climate change. However, there are conflicting views on whether to satisfy demand for food or to preserve the environment through efficient farming practices. Therefore, this study aimed at analysing effects of agricultural subsector production and farm management practices on greenhouse (GHG) emissions in Cameroon (1980-2013). It was found that the agricultural subsector production in the previous year (crop and livestock) and farm management practices in the previous year (fertilizer consumption and agricultural land use) significantly affect GHG emissions in the long run while GHG emissions in the previous year significantly affect itself in the short run. The result also shows that GHG emissions respond positively to a unit shock of crop subsector production and fertilizer consumption while GHG emissions respond negatively to a unit shock of livestock subsector production and agricultural land use. Finally, crop subsector production is the major contributor to GHG emissions in both long and short run. It was recommended that integrated farming system should be practices with emphasis on organic farming. Further, animal feed and manure management (collection, storage and utilization) should be appropriately handle to meet up with the scientific requirement

Keywords: Variance Decomposition, Impulse Response, Greenhouse Emissions, Agricultural, Sub-sector Production

1. Introduction
The United Nations Commission for the Environment has clearly demonstrated the degradation of the environment both globally and regionally in conjunction with economic activity. This awareness grew stronger at the Rio Summit (Brazil) in 1992 through the acceptance of the concept of sustainable development by the entire international community (Tamba et al., 2012). After the Rio Summit, Cameroon became a member of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1994. Thus, Cameroon is committed with the international community to help stabilize concentrations of greenhouse gas (GHG) in the atmosphere to an extent that would prevent dangerous interference of human activities with the climate system (Tamba et al., 2012). The Cameroon government has managed to realize in 1995 inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) in the energy, industrial, agricultural, land use and waste sectors (Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2005; Tamba et al., 2012). In 1997, a new financial assistance from the Global Environment Facility enabled Cameroon to prepare its first National Communication by developing inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 1994 as a base year. Thus, a first national communication on the GHG inventory in Cameroon was issued to the UNFCCC in 2005 with 2005 as the reference and only year (Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2005; Tamba et al., 2012).
Numerous linkages exist between agriculture and climate change. On the one hand, global agriculture is affected by climate change that could significantly impact productivity, especially in the tropics (Lobell et al., 2011, Challinor et al., 2014, Rosenzweig et al., 2014, Stefan et al., 2017). On the other hand, agriculture is an important contributor to climate change, accounting directly for 10%–12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and also for around 70% of land use change emissions, mainly through deforestation (Hosonuma et al., 2012, IPCC 2014, Tubiello et al., 2015, Stefan et al., 2017). Crop and livestock productions directly contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases through the application of nitrogenous fertilizers, responsible for N2O emissions, and the digestion of ruminants, responsible for emissions. The various ways in which farm wastes are managed ……..

2. Methodology
2.1 Research Desain
The Study Area: The study was conducted in Cameroon which has ten regions, namely: Centre; Littoral; Adamawa; Far-North; North; South; East; West; North-West and South-West. The country covers a total land area of 475,442sq km and is located in the Central part of Africa within latitudes 2° and 13° North and longitude 9° and 16° East of the equator (United Nations, 2004). Cameroon is bordered by Nigeria to the West; Chad to the Northeast; the Central Africa Republic to the East and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Republic of Congo to the South (World factsbook, 2010).
Method of Data Collection: Due to unavailability of data, annual time series covering a period of 34 years (1980-2013) were obtained from World Bank development indicators data base and Ministry of Environment.
Techniques of Data Analysis: Augmented Dikey Fuller test (ADF) was used for stationary test of variables. Johansen Co-integration test used to test the existence of long run relationship among variables. Vector error correction model was used to analyze the broad objective of this study. Variance decomposition was used to examine contribution of agricultural subsector production and farm management practices on GHG emissions and impulse response was used to examine the response of GHG emissions to agricultural subsector production and farm management
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Journal Full Text PDF: Effects of Agricultural Subsector Production and Farm Management Practices on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Cameroon.