Role of Technology Management in Construction Industry of Pakistan

International Journal of Engineering & Industry
ISSN: 2191-3315, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 1 – 13
Date: 30 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Muhammad Abbas & M Saeed Lodhi

Muhammad Abbas
B-tech Civil Engineer, MS Project Management
COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus-Pakistan

M Saeed Lodhi
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management Sciences
COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus-Pakistan

Abstract
The aim of this research is to introduce the findings of a recent study on the use of Technology specifically that of information technology (IT) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province; located in North-West of Pakistan. The study was conducted through a structured questionnaire survey among 53 Government engineering construction departments executing most of the civil works in the province; represent about 51% of the total number of departments in the province. The details extracted from this study provided fruitful information about what information technology the engineers are using. What are the perceived benefits and obstacles considered by the users in the Construction Industry (CI) were. The survey finds that the Technology of IT had been widely used in CI organization of KP; it is mainly used to support various individual tasks of the engineer’s services at a basic level, rather than to stimulate the production of their services as whole through automation in the province CI. Most of the respondents strongly agreed/agreed that IT play a vital role in the engineering profession; about (96%) respondents agreed that IT can shorten the time of providing Quantity Survey (QS) but they had not taken complete advantage of technology to improve their performance in the industry. They want change but they are associated with the head of the organization. In addition, KP civil secretariat secretaries are the policy makers for all the engineering organizations to date there was no comprehensive policy, to develop and boost the use of IT within the organizations. It is recommended that the regional organization must recognize the importance and adaptation of IT so that the secretaries may take appropriate actions to meet challenges the organization are facing.

Keywords: Technology; Engineers, Quantity Surveying; Information Technology; Construction Industry; Pakistan.

1. Introduction
Sectors which are the main contributors to Pakistan Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and economy are services, mining, construction, agriculture, and manufacturing respectively. Construction industry (CI) plays an important social and economic role in country. While economic growth is analyzed through GDP and use as an indicator to economic growth. CI of Pakistan has less contribution in the world list, 50th in the rank. Cost overrun, time delays, quality and safety issues are menace to the industry. In these circumstances the industry should coup with issues from initiation stage of the projects tell closing stage. With globalization as demand increases things become fast, CI also demanding efficiency and potency in operational works.
Technology especially of Information Technology (IT) is proved as a best assistance and a key enabler to CI and using as a combating force which result in bringing economic boasting. Computers are now a vital part of all effective industries. Quantity Survey (QS) a major function of Engineer in public engineering departments it includes rough cost estimates, detailed estimates, bill of quantity formation, tendering and evaluation of the work done etc. Through survey we look the context of Pakistan CI, and try to find that how they are approaching toward Technology in QS. Because software applications, a useful technology tool can help Engineers to speed up their daily works. The objective to the study is to determine the level of usage in operating tasks. Identify technology software’s, the problems and benefits in using IT. And further more that how Pakistani CI Engineers cum QSs is moving with time toward IT.
The aim of construction activities is to build artifacts such as ports, roads, bridges, tunnels, and buildings etc. Civil Engineering artifacts differ from other manufacturing products, to be built in a location which is specific, rather than in factories (Bjork, 1999). Managing construction activities from initial stage of design through to the closing stage requires knowledge in each phase of the constructed facilities (Olanrewaju and Anahye, 2015). Ghandour and Al-Hussein (2004) described the impact of the economic reforms upon the CI, reveal the fundamental changes in the CI since the economic reform and explain the leading role of the CI in the country’s economic development. Impressive progress has been made by the CI and has developed at an amazing speed.
Technology management of IT has been given little attention within the CI in the past. As a result numerous IT solutions have been developed to act as a driver in the construction and design process. Remarkable changes have been experienced in past two decades in the CI of Australia and Asia-Pacific due to changing in industry and Technology ……….

2. Literature Review
In word today every country wants development in most of the sectors especially in those which amass economic and social rising in country. Some countries fail in planning and investment for Technology in the sector. Malaysia government is working on that and nudging down individual towards better management of technology of IT for achieving long term objectives to accomplish developing country status in 2020(Mastura et al., 2007). Within the CI technology management of IT should be developed and use as an enabler to the winder operational needs of the CI. IT use is growing rapidly and is expected to become the leading Technology for communication between organizations ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: Role of Technology Management in Construction Industry of Pakistan.

Comparative Analysis of Principals Role in Establishment of Effective School Environment

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 19 – 25
Date: 13 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Nauman Saeed & Sheema

Nauman Saeed & Sheema
Department of Education Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University (PMAS AAUR)
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract
This study was design to investigation the role of school principal in establishment of effective school environment at secondary level in district Kotli Azad Kashmir. It was descriptive study in nature. Simple random technique was used to draw sample from the population. 30% schools (42 schools) were selected randomly and data was collected through structured interview taken from the principals belonging to this study. Findings of the study was that principal can play his/her role to improve effective school environment by using various strategies in this respect. Main recommendation of the study was that principals should provide freedom to perform their active and positive role to improve effective school environment.

Keywords: Principal, School, Effectiveness, Secondary, Environment, Teacher, Education.

1 Introduction
1.1 School Effectiveness
Cheng (1996) said that effectiveness of school is the capability of the school to make best use of institutional functions or it is the degree in which the school can act upon institutional functions when fixed amount of institutional inputs is given. According to Creemers (1994) Educational effectiveness is differentiated from the study of educational effects which also described unanticipated educational outcomes i.e the hidden curriculum results. Alternatively, it is also seen as of the concept of educational competency which concerned with the association between the inputs of education and the effects of education, mostly in the terms of finance. Effectiveness points out such factors at the different stages of any education system to contribute in outcomes of education. As Creemers (1994) explore that at such moment; the most excellent standard for the effectiveness of education is the worth of education puts into the preliminary traits of learners.

1.2 Research Questions
Following research questions were formulated for investigation:
a. How principals play their role in establishing the effective school environment?
b. Which strategies are required by principals to improve effective school environment?
c. Which qualities are required for principals to improve school effectiveness?

1.3 Objectives of The Study
This research is intended to achieve the under listed objectives;
a. To identify the principals role in establishing the effective school environment.
b. To explore the strategies which used by principals to improve effective school environment.
c. To investigate the required qualities for principals to improve school effectiveness.

2 Literature Review
2.1 The Principal Role In Achieving School Effectiveness
Usually the betterment of a school or the extent of its achievement is recognized in terms of its effectiveness and success as a whole, i.e. organizational effectiveness. This research includes categorizing the effective schools on basis of the factors that are present in the schools and then compare the results of the schools accordingly and promoting ideas and suggestions for the improvement of the results (Mortimore, 1998). According to my research, the question that what school principals could do to foster effectiveness do to foster school effectiveness was the main point. In addition to that we also gathered views about this from the school teachers.

2.2 Features of Effective Schools
Previous attempts of understanding and marking the traits of effective schools were classified by the differences in number of factors as well as the differences among the factors as well. (e.g., Edmonds, 1982; Brophy, 1982; Metzler 1990).

2.3 The Role of School Environment
Hallinger & Heck’s (1998) review which took place between 1980 and 1995 stated that the principal of the school, notably the principals of an institution played a great role in the lives of their students, especially in their achievements ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: Comparative Analysis of Principals Role in Establishment of Effective School Environment (Study at Secondary Level in District Kotli Azad Kashmir).

An Evaluative Study of Educational Background of Government Services Employees

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 11 – 18
Date: 8 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Haleema Bibi & Qaisara Parveen

Haleema Bibi
Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Qaisara Parveen
Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences
University of Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpidi Pakistan

Abstract
Education is the product of experience. It is necessary for the personality grooming of individuals. Quality of human resources depends upon the quality of education of a country. It is the process by which the experience of the race, i.e. knowledge, skill and attitude are transmitted to the member of the community. “Education means that training which is given by suitable habits to the fist instincts of virtue in children when pleasure and pain are rightly implanted in non-rational souls. Education is the word, which has been derived from Latin language. It means to bring up, to nourish, a social function, thus it serves the society, which maintains it and it is first and for most roles is to conserve the existing culture by transmitting it from generation to generation. Teacher’s degrees are effectiveness for the students’ performance in the subject areas of mathematics, science, English and history. Teachers are like a key element to educational quality because they orchestrate instructional interaction with and between students around academic content, and these classrooms interactions-in an ideal world-influence student learning.

Keywords: Teacher Performance; Achievements of Students; Urban and Rural, Secondary Level.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
Education is accepted as a fundamental right of all members of a society. The purpose of education is not merely to inculcate new knowledge and skills in the individuals but also to prepare children for social responsibility and to meet the challenge of the time. It is quite evident that the development of nation is greatly depends on the development of education. No country can march forward without taking into consideration the demands of changed circumstances. Every nation develops its education system keeping in view the developmental needs of its people. According to Guruge, A.W.P (1981 p.83.84).
Pakistan is one of many developing countries with a recent history of rapid growth within the private education sector. Since Pakistan steps into a free market economy in the early 1990s, education has become a very important key to human resource development. However, while the demand of education begins growing faster and faster, public education is still in poor condition and unresponsive to the growing need and free markets that offer people what they want stated that since competition among public schools has not been introduced, parents are free to choose any schools they want for their children. On the one hand, competition among private schools is very strong, so each school has managed many kinds of strategies in order to attract the parents as well as their children to participate the school. Private school enrollment is not a simple function of parental preferences. The quality of private schools can be a high demand in which parents seek for their child’s education. Private education is often perceived to be about serving the needs of the high and middle classes, not the poor. Most of parents want to provide the best educational environment for their children. The parents decide to invest their children in form of education depends on number of social, cultural and economic factors (Rehman et al(2010). Parents usually decide to choose the best quality school for their youngsters when they are dissatisfied with public school. Private schools are mostly more effective than public schools in terms of school environment, qualified teachers, smaller size of classes and parents’ education. Public school due to various reasons ……..

2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Population
There were two population groups. First as students and second was secondary school teacher s The target population of the study was consist of all 372349(233304 male and 139045) students enrolled in 9th and 10thin 2227 secondary school s(1422 male and 805 female) of District Abbottabad. Second group of population were 33259 (22280 male and 10979female) of same secondary schools. The description of population is given in ……..

Journal Full Text PDF: An Evaluative Study of Educational Background of Government Services Employees.

A Study of Relationship Between Decision Making and School Effectiveness

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 218 – 226
Date: 31 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Syed Haseeb Ahmed Gardazi & Muhammad Imran Yousuf

Syed Haseeb Ahmed Gardazi
Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
PMAS-Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Muhammad Imran Yousuf
Chairman, Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
PMAS-Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract
The study was designed to analyze critically, the relationship between decision-making and School effectiveness. The main purpose, of this study was 1). Identify factors that influence teachers‟ involvement in decision–making. 2). To discuss the relationship of teacher’s decision and its effect on school. To conduct this study the descriptive survey method was used by the researcher. The population of this study was 4 Boys Higher Secondary Schools and 47 Government Boys High Schools of Bagh AJ&K. According to L. R Gay sampling table 250 teachers and 25 heads was taken as sample from the target population by using random sampling technique. The data was analysed, through (SPSS) statistical package of social sciences. Percentage, mean, standard deviation, and Pearson Chi-Square were used to find out the association between decision-making and school effectiveness. The finding of the study indicates that majority of the respondents agreed that the personal relation and association among teachers affects participation in school decision-making and lack of motivation of teachers in school affects participation in school decision-making process. There is a statistically significant association between the variables decision-making and school effectiveness. This indicates that the school heads are poor in transparency and provision of support for teachers and staff. So, the school principals should be transparent about issues and problems related to school decision-makings and provide more support to the teachers for more teacher’s participation.

Keywords: Relationship, Decision Making, School, Effectiveness, Teachers, Participation.

1. Introduction
The decision-making was thought of as management purpose by itself. But now days, researcher and management expert relate decision-making with a cooperative work because of this the variations in the educational organization call for reformulating, reconsidering, rethinking, and restructuring of educational policies at school and national levels. The Ethiopian, Education and Training Policy (Mukhopadhyay, 2016) give a special consideration and action priority to the change of educational organization and management of the state. The idea of the policy is the development of a decentralized, effective and professionals, harmonized participatory system with respect to administration and management of the education system. Accordingly, the educational management and administration of the school was set to a democratic leadership by School Board and Parent-Teacher Association committee consisting of members from the community, teachers or educators and students. The application strategy of the policy created a mechanism by which teachers or educators participate in creation, implementation, evaluation and decision of the curriculum (Frost & Little, 2014).
The policy is in contour with many scholar’s argument (Owens, 1998; Mohrman et al, 1992; Pashiard, 1994) for the need to use participative decision-making at school level. Owens (1998) for example, participative decision-making needs the dealings of power and impact from two faces: the administrator on one-hand and the teacher, students and community members on the other hand. Owens further explains that participative decision-making is supposed to have two benefits: arriving at improved decision and improving the progress and development of the school in sharing goals, improving motivation, collaboration and good developing group organizations participants skills.
The rising appreciation of the need for authorized, knowledgeable inputs in administrative decision-making from several organization level ………..

2. Literature Review
This section gives a thorough survey of the related writing on various part of teacher’s participation in school decision– making. It contains ideas, models, process, areas, rationale and reason for teacher’s participation in basic leadership. This review considers the elements that influence teacher’s participation in school basic leadership. It likewise underlines on the part of principals in participative decision– making. Different researcher characterizes basic leadership contrastingly by concentrating on the procedure required amid basic leadership, by underscoring the means took after amid a basic leadership and by concentrating on the members associated with basic leadership. Coleman (2005) characterizes decision– making as the way toward determining the idea of specific issue and choosing among accessible options to tackle the issue. This meaning of decision– making demonstrates that an issue goes before any decision and that there must be various elective courses from which an ideal course will be chosen. Thus, (Glover & Law, 2003) have expressed as the basic leadership might be seen as the procedure by which individual or groups select a course from among other options to deliver a coveted outcome.
Decisions are a composite of qualities, certainties, and presumptions. Each or these might be liable to change every once in a while. Basic leadership, in this way, is anything but is not onetime action ………

Journal Full Text PDF: A Study of Relationship Between Decision Making and School Effectiveness (Case at Bagh AJ&K).

School Input Factors and Their Impacts on Teachers Performance

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 209 – 217
Date: 28 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Syeda Najma Fatima & Muhammad Imran Yousuf

Syeda Najma Fatima
Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Muhammad Imran Yousuf
Chairman, Faculty of Social Sciences
University of Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi Pakistan

Abstract
The study was designed to identify the school input factors and their impacts on teachers performance at elementary level in District Bagh (AJ&K). The research was descriptive and quantitative in nature. All the teachers at elementary level of public sector in District Bagh (AJ&K) constituted the population of the study. A total 300 teachers from District Bagh (AJ&K) were selected through simple random sampling technique. A self-developed structured questionnaire was used for gathering information from teachers. Descriptive statistics i.e., mean, frequency, percentage and inferential statistics i.e., chi square test were employed for statistical analysis of the data through SPSS. The findings revealed that the school input factors have great impacts on the performance of teachers. A motivated and trained teacher is able to develop creativity in students and motivate them to enhance their academic performance. Chi-square test analysis shows that there is significant relationship between school input factors and they have great impact on the teacher’s performance. Based on findings, it was recommended that teacher’s performance may be improved to provide better quality of school facilities to teachers according to their needs.

Keywords: Input Factors, Impacts, Teachers Performance, Elementary Level.

1. Introduction
Education is the greatest legacy a nation can give to her youth. This would suggest that the development of any nation or community depends to a great extent on the nature of training of such a country (William et al., 2004). Teaching is a great job and teacher is the backbone for the society. Using Internet advancements to assigns the teachers where they are required is a progression that could be examined and assists with in developing countries (Droste, 2000). Organization is the essential system theory which is comprise of five elements: inputs, feedback, a process of transformation and the environment. Inputs are the resources, financial, human and information resources used to produce services and goods. In the system of elementary education, the material information sources consists of infrastructural offices provided that the school to educating and learning process. Human inputs are the different blends of the educating and non instructing staff. The process of transformation is the school administration and instructors, utilize of the most recent instructing techniques to change the inputs to output (Draft, 2008).
There are two sorts of the aspects that influence the performance of the educators, the internal aspect and the external aspect. There are the lots of outer aspects about the teachers effecting that how a teacher makes conversation in the classroom whereas it’s tough to add on any distress demand to these aspects because every teacher is different, they are consists of different level, expectations from the society, precise school system where they do job and every school has own promotion policies. The importance desires to these outer aspects will appear conflicting and its classroom teacher who have to link to these into a workable structure whereas managing scope of internal factors. The viewpoint of individual educator’s regarding how students learn most efficiently, how to teach pupils in good manners and how to create good learning environment. Strong coordination among in individual educator’s beliefs regarding the good presentation performs and certainly they can individually meet these desires into the classroom. Classroom have important for meet these desires. Teachers argue superior ways of thinking …….

2. Literature Review
2.1 Motivation
Mcshane & Von-Glinow (2003) studied about motivation that is “A factor that exists a person which can possibly influence the way, quality and enthusiasm of carrying on towards work”. Motivation is very important for the success. According to Infinedo (2003) teacher motivation is a mind boggling and troublesome term to characterize; in this way an exact meaning of this idea is tricky as the thought includes the attributes of individual and circumstance and in addition the view of that circumstance by the person. Herzberg cleanliness factors make a reasonable workplace however couldn’t enhance in fulfillment. For example low salary can cause occupation disappointment that will influence on the workers performance. Cleanliness aspects are necessary to make sure that the office does not form into a displease situation. Normal cleanliness factors (likewise called outward factors) are compensation, working condition, grades, organization strategies and management (Saiyadain 2009).

2.2 Effective Instructions in School
Musungu and Nasongo (2008) stated that in the school the leader is a director, he is all rounder in which many characteristic of the school rotate, he knows about every detail that is running in the school may be its academic or administrative. The director is a decision maker, leader and a good thinker; therefore it’s important for the principal that they involved making decisions about school. A good leader will always motivate to the employs perfectly and they have adopted new work strategies for the employs satisfaction ……..

Journal Full Text PDF: School Input Factors and Their Impacts on Teachers Performance (Case at Elementary Level in District Bagh (AJ&K)).

Slip Effect on the MHD Three Dimensional Free Convective Flow of a Viscous Fluid Through a Porous Medium with Periodic Permeability

International Journal of Biology, Physics & Matematics
ISSN: 2721-3757, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 148 – 154
Date: 25 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Mehfooz Hussain Shah, M. A. Rana, Nosheen Zareen Khan, & M. Shoaib

Mehfooz Hussain Shah, M. A. Rana, Nosheen Zareen Khan
Department of Mathematics & Statistics, Riphah International University
Sector I-14, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan

M. Shoaib
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Kamra Road, Post code 43600, Attock, Pakistan

Abstract
The purpose of this work is to study the three dimensional free convective flow and heat transfer through a porous medium with periodic permeability. The porous medium is bounded by an infinite vertical porous plate. Assuming the free stream velocity to be uniform, approximate solutions are obtained for the flow field, the temperature field, the skin friction and the rate of heat transfer. Effects of various non-dimensional parameters emerging in the model are visualized graphically.

Keywords: Free Convective Flow, Porous Medium, Periodic Permeability, Perturbation Method, Analytic Solutions.

1. Introduction
In recent years, natural convection flows through a porous medium have gained the attention of many workers due to their applications in science and engineering. For example, in agriculture engineering to study seepage of water in river beds, the underground water resources, etc. Because of such important applications, Singh and Kumar [1] studied unsteady two-dimensional free convective flow through a porous medium bounded by infinite vertical porous plates, Singh and Kumar [2] have studied unsteady two-dimensional free convective flow through a porous medium.
Most of the workers considered only the two-dimensional flows by taking permeability of the porous medium either constant or time dependent. Many workers [3-4] analyzed the effects of such transverse permeability distribution on the flow of an incompressible fluid through a porous medium. Further, three dimensional flow through porous medium with heat transfer taking periodic permeability into account is investigated by Singh and Sharma [5]; Jain et al. [6] presented the influence of periodic permeability and temperature of free convective three dimensional flow of a viscous fluid through porous medium with slip effects. Recently, Reddy et al. [7] have extended the work of Singh and Sharma [5] by adding MHD effects. They noted that velocity of the fluid reduces due heat sink and magnetic field.
The study of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows with heat transfer is very important because of its various industrial applications, for example, cooling of nuclear reactor, power generation system, etc. Mamta Gohal and Namrata Naraniya [8] analyzed three dimensional free convective Couette flow with transpiration cooling, Ahmed Sahim [9] studied the MHD and chemical influences on unsteady flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous fluid over a vertical porous semi-infinite porous plate in a slip-flow regime.

2. Mathematical Analysis
Steady flow of a viscous incompressible fluid through porous medium is considered. The medium is bounded by an infinite vertical porous plate in x^* z^*-plane with x^*-axis along the plate in upward direction. The y^*-axis is taken perpendicular to the plane of the plate and directed into the fluid flow. The suction through the plate is assumed to be constant while free stream velocity U is considered to be uniform. The permeability is taken of the form ……… where k_o^*denotes the mean permeability, ϵ(<<1) is the amplitude of the permeability variation, and l is the wavelength of permeability distribution. Due to permeability of the term (3.1), the flow becomes three-dimensional. The velocity components along x^*-,y^*-,z^*- axes are u^*,v^*,w^* respectively while T^* denotes the temperature. Moreover, density depending on temperature whiles other fluid properties are considered to be constant ………

Journal Full Text PDF: Slip Effect on the MHD Three Dimensional Free Convective Flow of a Viscous Fluid Through a Porous Medium with Periodic Permeability.

Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Principals Role in Prvision of Quality Education at College Level

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 195 – 208
Date: 25 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Nauman Saeed & Almas Ikram Kayani

Nauman Saeed
Department of Education Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University (PMAS AAUR) Rawalpindi Pakistan

Almas Ikram Kayani
Associate Professor
Department of Education Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University (PMAS AAUR) Rawalpindi Pakistan

Abstract
The primary focus of the research was to compare the role of both male and female college principals in provision of quality of education in public colleges of District Kotli Azad Kashmir. It was descriptive study in nature. All teachers of public colleges of District Kotli A.K constituted population of the study. The study was delimited to four tehsils. Two tehsils were selected for pilot testing and two for final study. Consecutive sampling technique was used to draw the sample from population and sample was selected using L. R. Gay’s table of sampling. The data obtained was analyzed by using SPSS software. The study explore that principals can play their vital role in improving quality of education. Findings of the study were that both male and female principals play their role in provision of quality education and If college principals are willing to improve quality of education, they should maintain positive relationships with their staff members. The study recommends that; College’s principals should take necessary steps to improve college standard. Principals should cooperate with staff. The principals’ leadership should be democratic and engage all staff members in any decision making process. There is dire need to pay more attention towards quality enhancement training programs for females principals as compare to male principals.

Keywords: Colleges, Principals, Principals Role, Male, Female, Quality Education.

1. Introduction
Education is an essential determinant of economic and social development of any nation. Education is the process through which we transfer knowledge and culture from one generation to another generation. Education is also a primary source of all technological advances, innovation and human comfort. Education is the way of planning socio-economic development of any nations (Anjum, 2006). Principal’s role impacts on quality of education. Both principals and teachers provide with quality professional development and effective learning which leads to high student achievement and improve educational quality. It is true the principal holds on important post in any institution (Budde, 2011).
The principals need to establish clear academic goals and ensure that all stakeholders share their academic and instructional goals. According to Ramirez & Ovando (2007), role of principal’s and instructional leadership actions include setting clear expectations, monitoring instruction, and providing suitable environment according to needs to improve quality of education.
Principals need to perform strong academic leadership and support teachers in achieving academic excellent results for all students and improve the standard of education. As the instructional leader of an institution the primary role of principal’s is to support all teachers in their efforts to develop their pedagogical skills and enhance knowledge while staying current in new research-based strategies. The role of the principal as instructional leader should include support and train teachers through effective professional development programs to make sure they have opportunities to learn and develop their practices ………

2. Concept of Education
Our country is a developing country and educational development is highly needed for the progress and prosperity of the country. A nation develops us self-consciousness by sensitizing its individual through education, social institution that provider mental, physical, ideological and moral training. Education is a social activity on the globe along with the mankind. Education brings understanding, discipline, and economic prosperity among the people.
It is the responsibility of the state to provide educational opportunities and facilities to its masses so that they can become useful citizens. That is why education is placed at the top in the social priorities of all the countries.

3. Literature Review
3.1 Education Quality
Now a day’s education quality is the major issue to achieve the international standards. Virk & Isani (2005), said that quality has many dimensions, which play a key role to increase the quality of education. Lim (2001) remarked that quality indicates processes and policies for ensuring the fortification and security of quality. In developing counties universities, it is require utilize international standard of quality methods to enhance the quality of their programs (Lim, 2001). Though, there is a massive difference in the social status and economic between developing and developed countries, and it will be valuable to apply standards of quality into higher educational institutions of developing countries. However, for successful procedures and plans, consideration must be given to the utilization of best resources and infrastructure in developing countries ……..

Journal Full Text PDF: Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Principals Role in Prvision of Quality Education at College Level (Case in District Kotli Azad Kasmir).

Investigation of Affective and Cognitive Charactertics of Student Teachers in the Teacher Training Institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 183 – 186
Date: 16 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Amina Ejaz & Muhammad Arshad Dahar

Amina Ejaz & Muhammad Arshad Dahar
Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
Pir Mehr Ali Shah – Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract
Objective: The study seeks to analyse the affective and cognitive traits of student teacher in the teacher training institute of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The present study was quantitative in nature. The survey research design was used to conduct the study. Delimitation: The universe of the study is very large, and it is impossible for the researcher to approach and collect the data from them, which is why the study delimited to the teacher training institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Population: of the study was all the student teachers who are currently in teacher training institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The sample was selected from this population. Students, teachers of section 2018 of B.Eds. (Hons) in Rawalpindi. Sample: The whole population was selected of the study. Sample of the study was selected through the simple random sampling technique. Male and female students were taken according to the proportion of population. Tool of the study: The tool used for research was the questionnaire. A questionnaire of favourable numbers of questions was designed. It was containing the indicators of affective and cognitive characteristics of student’s teachers. Pilot study: The piloting of the study was done through testing the research tools on selected student teachers from the teacher training institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The results from those questionnaires was analysed and checked for the validity (coherence with the objectives of the study) Discussions with the experts was also be conducted and suggestions for improvement or administration of the tools was collected and implied. Data collection: The data was collected through questionnaire that was administered to the participants selected in the sample. The researcher herself was administers the questionnaire. Data Analysis: Descriptive analysis technique was used to analyse the data. Simple percentage and frequency distribution analysis was implied on the data using SPSS. The results drawn from the collected data was also be tabulated and was interpreted in the results section. Graphs and charts were also being formed and were added in the results section. Results of the Study: This table shows that Demographic characteristics Age of the respondent’s maximum is 29 and its frequency is 67 and percentage is 16.8%, and minimum ages of the respondents is 19 and its frequency is 22 and percentage is 5.5%. This table shows that Demographic characteristics of the respondent’s maximum frequency are 323 of female and percentage is 80.8 and minimum frequency of the male is 77 and percentage is 19.3. maximum qualification B.Ed. and its frequency is 162, and minimum frequency of M.Ed. is 84 and its percentage is 21.0 and maximum frequency is 200 of 4year experience of teacher and minimum frequency 79 of 5 year of experience of teacher and its percentage is minimum 19.8%. This table shows that besides my teaching subject. I can teach other needed subjects like current events, general knowledge etc. of the respondent’s maximum frequency of strongly agree is 225 and minimum frequency of Agree is 145 and mean is 1.36 and S.D is .481.

Keywords: Affective, Cognitive, Characteristics, Teacher Education, Framework.

1. Introduction
This is with the view to develop an effective teacher education framework by using inputs from the trainees, in-service teachers and teacher educators and to incorporate their ideas into the structuring and organization of not only the educational programmers but also the admission processes into such programmers. Using inputs from classroom teachers, teacher trainees, teacher educators as well as basic education students, a compilation of the personal and professional characteristics of an effective teacher was drawn. These were then developed into a comprehensive open and close-ended questionnaire covering trainees’ perception of and attitude to teaching, their belief systems, measures of cognitive and affective characteristics as well as a test of personality trait. The main sample for the study comprised four hundred student teacher trainees drawn from three universities and one college of education from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The findings showed that student teacher trainees possessed varied and widely spread cognitive and affective behaviour some of which is suited for the teaching profession. However, the study could not determine if these attributes are reflective of their personality types prior to exposure to teacher education or not.

2. Discussion
To meet the growing demands of teachers at various levels, the teacher education system in Pakistan has gone through significant quantitative expansion, yet the quality of teachers’ preparation has been overlooked and compromised. The preparation of teachers is critically important because a country’s modernization and development depend on the quality of its education system that is indebted to the quality of teacher education. There is a direct link between education and national development. For this, educational programs have to be reorganized and teachers are the main actors in this reorganization and transformation. It is, therefore, essential that teacher education programs be designed in such a way that the prospective teachers acquire all the relevant skills (Yackulic and Noonan, 2003).
In Pakistan, it suffers from three major shortcomings. Firstly, it tends to imitate American teacher education, which, according to their own standards is under criticism for being deficient in developing teacher abilities for effective practice. Secondly, fragments of periodic experiments of American teacher have seeped into Pakistan’s teacher preparation programs. It has resultantly become an amalgam of incompatible ingredients which forces it to become too theoretical. Thirdly, Pakistan teacher education is woefully oblivious to the ground realities of schools and offers no answers to the problems posed by inhospitable conditions in which the teacher is required to work ……

Journal Full Text PDF: Investigation of Affective and Cognitive Charactertics of Student Teachers in the Teacher Training Institutes of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

A Study of Teaching Experience on the Performance of University Teachers

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 172 – 182
Date: 12 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Urooj Naeem & Qaisara Parveen

Urooj Naeem & Qaisara Parveen
Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
PMAS Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract
Coaching revel in affords a danger to amateur teachers to put into practice what they have discovered through their experiences and academics. Coaching experience is an obligatory detail for all the training programs. The maximum critical issue is that an experienced trainer is aware of several the things related to research. All the novice teachers must spend time to increase gazing and rising competencies associated with their teaching exercise in a study room or premature early life putting. Learning on the side of certified and experienced teacher permits the university students to look how idea and exercise are linked to each other. This represents a continuance of research efforts to in addition distill the coaching enjoy effect on performance of university instructors and scholar attainments. The purposes of this observe were to have a look at the effect of skilled instructor at the attainments of the scholars as teachers, the dissimilarity in attitudes toward pupil fulfillment between amateur and experienced instructors, variations among male and lady teachers enjoy toward student’s expertise and attainments. Outcomes discovered widespread dissimilarity among novice and experienced instructors on student’s results in examinations. Experienced teachers were much useful for the scholars in engaging in a research. They were found a good deal familiar approximately some of the issues associated to investigate as their steerage changed into tons helpful for the students. suggestions for future studies and practice have been mentioned. Population of look at contains the universities. The plan of labor is designed in this type of way that look at became delimited to the colleges of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the academics of the consultation 2017-18. Questionnaire and interview time table have been used as gear of research. The respondents have been all in favor of the assist of easy random sampling approach. The collected records turned into analyzed and interpretative with SPSS (statistical package for social sciences.

Keywords: Teaching Experience, Performance, Coaching, Learning, Academics.

1. Introduction
Education has many benefits and advantageous impact in our lives. Schooling is an essential aspect of monetary and social improvement of any country. Fine of training of a rustic suggests the high-quality of its human useful resource improvement. Education has been considered because the back bone of a country not most effective for developing nations but also for advanced countries. Expenditure on training is likewise a supply of selling best of schooling. Satisfactory of education is a major difficulty of any society. Exceptional may be predicted from educational agencies which might be running correctly and correctly. It is a longtime reality that there are three crucial factors, organizational shape, management style and physical centers for the functioning of any agency. In divine terminology, training is the schooling of absolutely everyone to do for what his abilities specifically in shape him which benefit the whole society. Education is the method through which we switch expertise and tradition from one technology to another generation. It is also a primary source of all technological advances, innovation and human comfort. Training is the manner of making plans socio-financial development of any nation. Teachers need to set up clean educational desires and ensure that all participants proportion their educational and instructional goals. A knowledgeable individual is an asset of any country. In today’s global, human sources are considered the pleasant country wide useful resource. On one hand, he can find out extra openings for himself, and however, the entire state would get blessings from his paintings and offerings. Education is of extreme importance for casting off the unemployment trouble from any country. It is also obligatory to improve the alternate and change and to carry prosperity.
Over the last decade, among the researches have proved that instructors have actual influences on their college students’ educational and long-lasting achievement. It is admitted by using many researchers that experienced teachers play crucial function within the complete educational sports. Challenges of the prevailing century can be addressed if the lecturers are committed to their professions and properly equipped with the brand-new modem coaching and administration techniques. Consequently, it is noticeably need of time to bring many reforms in training for improving the content of teaching gaining knowledge of system. Latest inspections also have exposed a few characteristics of effective lecture room environments, which includes teachers’ organizational abilities and interaction with university students ……

2. Review of Literature
Many occupations discover personnel’ years of experience as an applicable factor in human resource guidelines, which includes repayment systems, gain programs and promotion decisions. The concept is that enjoy, gained over time, improves the expertise, skills and productiveness of workers.
In education, teacher revel in might be the important thing aspect in manpower rules that affect contemporary employees. It’s miles a keystone in promoting university student’s fulfillment, originates teacher switch guidelines that prioritize seniority and it’s far usually taken into consideration a major supply of discrimination throughout schools …….

Journal Full Text PDF: A Study of Teaching Experience on the Performance of University Teachers (Case in Rawalpindi Islamabad).

Role of E-Learning in Promoting Higher Education

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 166 – 171
Date: 11 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Fozia Younis & Almas Ikram Kayani

Fozia Younis
Department of Education, Faculty of Social & Sciences, Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Almas Ikram Kayani
Associate Professor
Department of Education, Faculty of Social & Sciences
Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract
The study was designed to find out the relationship between e-learning and Higher Education. The proposed study was descriptive in nature. The study was qualitative & quantitative. The total population of the study was drawn public sector universities of AJ&K. which were two in number i.e. Azad Jammu & Kashmir university Muzaffarabad and Poonch university Rawalakot. The population of the study comprised of university students and HODS. The sample size of the study was 328 students. Descriptive statistics i.e mean, standard deviation and chi square test were employed for statistical analysis of the data through SPSS. The findings reveal that e-learning improves the capacity of students (Higher Education) to manage with the technological advancement. E-learning improves quality of instruction for formal and non-formal education. E-learning improves quality of the learning experience through information technology. Teachers can easily modify digital learning resources according to the learning style of students. Chi square test analysis shows that there is a significant relationship between e-learning and Higher Education. Based on findings, it was recommended that that Public universities of AJK may be replace face to face teaching by digital media

Keywords: E-learning; Higher Education.

1. Introduction
E-learning is seen as a necessity for the development of information technology and its potential to meet the challenges posed by access to knowledge. The main influence on communication and learning technology is still being explored, constantly seeking new ways to attract the attention of learning, actively work, but a customizable, learning environment where learning is stimulated and you want to learn continuous learning using different types of IT tools (Bottino, 2004).
Now one day, e-learning is playing an important role in spreading education in an effective and efficient manner. Talking through e-learning with students with their teachers can help students improve their learning processes and experience. E-learning is engaged in using any computer or electronic device in any way to present any educational or learning content, and to improve the performance of students (Agarwal, Doo, Das, 2004).
E-learning is used to give you the opportunity to learn interactive electronic at any time, at any time, electronically-developed. E-learning includes web based learning, computer-based, official classroom, digital collaboration, audio and video tape, internet or satellite TV, and CD-ROM (Islam and Selim, 2006).
Learning in different learning is set up, such as learning distance, learning online and networking network (Wilson 2001). In the context of this paper, all these examples will be described using information communication technology (ICT) to promote academic interactions between students, lectures and communities learning (Holley, 2002).
Volery, T., & Lord, D. (2002) stated that the speed and expansion of relevant technical developments, combined with social demands for limited budget and better access to higher education, encouraged students to introduce e-learning courses for universities.
According to Andrews and Haythornthwaite (2007) e-learning is the use of technologies in learning opportunities, encompassing flexible learning as well as distance learning; and the use of information and communication technology as a communications and delivery tool, between individuals and groups, to support students and improve the management of learning ……..

2. Hypotheses of the study
Hypothesis 1. There is insignificant relationship between e-learning and Higher Education
Hypothesis 2. There is a significant relationship between e-learning and Higher Education

3. Materials and methods
3.1 Population
All the public universities of Azad Jammu & Kashmir were explored from AJK planning and development and universities statistical departments. It was find out there are 5 public universities of AJK. All the faculties of these five universities were find out.
The total population of the study was drawn public sector universities of AJ&K. which were two in number i.e. Azad Jammu & Kashmir university Muzaffarabad and Poonch university Rawalakot. The population of the study comprised of university students serving in department’s of CS&IT, zoology & mathematics of both universities were included.

3.2 Sample and sampling technique
In proportionate stratified sampling, the quantity of components apportioned to the different strata is corresponding to the representation of the strata in the target population. The size of the sample has been decided by consulting L.R. Gay’s table for selecting sample size in which sample size …….

Journal Full Text PDF: Role of E-Learning in Promoting Higher Education.