Effect Of Political Violence In Nigeria

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 1 – 10
Date: 7 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Umar Lawal Aliyu

Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty Of Management, Department Of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, USA

Abstract
Political violence is violence outside of state control that is politically motivated. Some political scientists see political violence as part of “contentious politics” or collective political struggle, which includes such things as revolutions, civil war, riots and strikes, but more peaceful protest movements. Crime and warfare share some attributes with political violence, but political scientists do not define them as political violence. Political violence is violence perpetrated by people or governments to achieve political goals. It can describe violence used by a state against other states or against non-state actors. It can also describe politically motivated violence by non-state actors against a state or against other non-state actors. Political violence is violence perpetrated by people or governments to achieve political goals. … At other times, governments use force in order to defend their country from outside invasion or other threats of force and to coerce other governments or conquer territory. For democracy to be at equitable standard and delivery politicians that improve masses welfare and mensch must be informed to vote and hold politicians accountable in the event of any eventual pitfall because most politicians often manage to secure votes by stirring up greed, rivalry, or fear. Improving democracy therefore requires that we must find ways to reduce the role that greed, rivalry and fear play in the electoral process, especially in young democracies such as those in Africa. However, the study aimed at determining the causes and level of the effect of political violence in Nigeria.

Keywords: Crime, Democracy, Election, Offence, Political violence, Politicians, Rivalry, Vote.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Greed, rivalry, fear or egomania, few among others in politics have been among causes of political violence. Critical examination of the causes of the political violence in Nigeria revealed that the immediate causes of the phenomenon in the country include imposition of candidates on party members. Others are, lack of democratic institutions and culture; the prevailing political mind of- set of do – or die and winner takes- all; partisanship of law enforcement agencies; lack of prompt judicial response to the cases of electoral offences, the general socioeconomic downturn that has rather remained unaddressed over the years. The fundamental question is; what can be done to reduce the role of malfeasant electoral strategies like vote-buying, lack of democratic institutions and culture; the prevailing political mind of- set of do – or die and winner takes- all; partisanship of law enforcement agencies; lack of prompt judicial response to the cases of electoral offences, ethnic polarization, or violent intimidation? However, encouraging empowerment and creating awareness campaign encouraging Nigerian voters to oppose electoral violence may reduce it to a minimal level.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Nigeria is a country of overlapping regional, religious, and ethnic divisions. Rifts between the North and the South of the country, ethnic groups, and Islam and Christianity often coincide and have sometimes resulted in political or sectarian violence.
Since the end of military rule, Nigeria’s elites have largely cordoned off national presidential elections from sectarian divisions by predetermining presidential and vice presidential victors. Their People’s Democratic Party (PDP) nominates one southern Christian and one northern Muslim for the presidency and vice presidency. Every eight years the party rotates the office for which it nominates Christian and Muslim candidates. Excluded as it is from this process of political horse-trading, known as zoning, Nigeria’s ethnically and religiously fractured public has become increasingly indifferent to the country’s national electoral politics. The question is why it must always be Muslim/Christian candidates and why not Muslim/Muslim or Christian/ Christian? Evidence we find suggests political parties formed along ethnic divides are more prone to violence, which leads us to argue in favour of the reciprocal-vote approach …………

2. Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Different researchers have examined the link between election outcome, electoral participation and electoral violence but all have limited their theories and views to how they see it according to their perspective field of study. Hickman (2009) examines the impact of violence on voter turnout and election results in Sri Lanka. According to him, violence perpetrated by individuals associated with one political party, leads to a reduction in turnout for the opposition or another party. Another paper using the Afrobarometer data from Nigeria shows that vote buying is far more effective than violence (Bratton, 2008). Bratton also demonstrates that the most common response to any form of \illegitimate campaigning”, e.g. violence or vote buying, is abstention. We extend this literature by examining multiple countries and looking at heterogeneity in the impact of violence ……….

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Impact of Commercial Banks in Economic Growth and Development

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 1 – 9
Date: 2 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty of Management, Department of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, USA

Abstract
The main objective of the thesis is to critically examine and analyse the effect of Commercial Banks in Economic Development. All sectors of the economy work in an inter-related and inter-dependent whole, therefore any malfunction of one or more sectors of the economy automatically affect the economy as a whole and so it is with the banking sector. Banks have always play an important role in a country’s economy all over the world irrespective of it economic and political policies. They are acting not only as the custodian of the wealth of the country but are also major contributors to economic development of countries all over the world. Commercial banks are involved in the process of increasing the wealth of the economy, particularly the capital goods needed for raising productivity so both developed and developing countries considers the service of the banking sector to enable its economy attain economic growth and development. According to Schumpeter (1934), commercial banking is one of the key agents in the whole process of growth and development of countries’ economies all over the world. Thus, the role of commercial bank in transforming the economic framework of countries all over the world cannot be over-emphasized. Therefore, achieving sustained economic growth and development within any economy can be possible amidst strongly to financial institution and precisely within the existence of a virile banking system.

Keywords: Bank, Central Bank, Commercial Bank, Development, Economic Growth, Fiscal Policy, Instruments, Monetary Policy.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
It is well acknowledged in economics, Management, Business administration etc. that deposit taking banking institutions play a major role in promoting economic development through channelling of funds from those with excess to those in need for investment purposes. Scholars all over the world have asserted that there is close connection between commercial bank and economic growth and development. This is because, ordinarily, by the role and services commercial banks play which by simple mathematical logic would increase the GDP of a country. It is well acknowledged in economics literature that Central Bank of a country irrespective of the country’s economic or political policies play a major role in promoting economic development through the functions and services it renders.
However, for banks to be effective in fostering economic growth and development, it is important that the functions and services they provide to sectors of the economy that are essential for growth and development can act as catalysts to stimulate it. Furthermore, it is fundamental that banks effectively manage various risks that they are exposed to, in order to remain solvent in the end and be in a position to provide long-term capital to private and public sectors, which is more essential for economic growth and development.
Thus, for an economy to grow, it should have a well-developed and stable banking system that is resilient to external shocks to effectively play the role of financial intermediation, growth and development ……..

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The commercial banks all over the world are the common suppliers of funds for supporting domestic economic activities. Economist has acknowledged that the banking sector registers improved performance to growth and development at all the time. Whatever the case may be commercial Banks of all countries play a very significant role in the development of every economy. Empirical works that focused explicitly on banking sector performance and economic growth have yielded mixed results. Some of these works suggest that banking sector performance has affected positively and significantly on economic growth (see; Adelakun, 2010) while others reported an insignificant relationship between banking sector performance and economic growth (See. Ekpeyong & Acha, 2011; Odeniran & Udeaja, 2010).
However, other financial institutions such as pension funds, unit trusts and insurance companies also play a role in providing funds for domestic investment purposes, in that they also create a platform for raising domestic savings for economic growth and development. The role of non-banking financial institutions in providing funds for domestic investment is, however limited. This has therefore placed greater expectation on commercial banks to provide domestic credit that can stimulate the growth of the economy ……..

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Role of Computer in Economic Development

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 189 – 197
Date: 29 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty of Management, Department of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, USA

Abstract
The trust of the paper is therefore to examine and assess the role of computer in economic development. It can hardly be denied that computers have considerably changed the lives of human beings. These days, majority of us cannot imagine our lives without them. A number of organizations have recognized the importance of computer technology to the extent that they use computer in whatever they do. In fact, computer has come a long way since it was first invented and the power of technology in the spotlight is virtually all over the world. However, as the world progresses on in this never-ending chase for good and better standard of living, it is undeniable that computer science has made astounding progress in growth and development of most countries all over the world. Although computers are bringing the evolution of technology and changing the way lives are lived, it cannot be denied that there are areas where the computer has disadvantages. For example, it will be good to note that even though computers are introduce with the view of making things easier for those who use them but it has also become an avenue for the easiest fraud to take place in the whole world because it has one Logo: “Garbage in – Garbage Out. As the 21st century looms ahead, it is clear to see that it has advancements that humanity may never have dreamed of, one of these shining developments is the well-recognized services, achievements and growth, and development computer has caused in countries all over the world. The accurate knowledge and use of computers has brought change in a big and astonishing way, as it has led to the demolition of illiteracy, and lead to optimism, efficiency, productivity and high quality growth and development all over the world.

Keywords: Computer, Development, Economic Growth, Economic Growth, Organization, Technology.

1. Introduction
Computer is an electronic device, which is capable of receiving information (data) in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals. A computer is a machine or device that performs processes, calculations and operations based on instructions provided by a software or hardware program.
It is designed to execute applications and provides a variety of solutions by combining integrated hardware and software components. The computer industry began in the late forties with a very small initial investment but as today increase in both strength and importance. When one looks back with analytical mind, we can conclude that computer technology keeps on advancing with remarkable increase in speed, accuracy and reliability. Computing in whatever field, science, management, business, agriculture, and industry etc. is reaching directly or indirectly into various aspects of our society thereby, without loss of generality has shrunk the world into such a compactness that no part can afford to lack behind or live in isolation.
Run this thought experiment: think of devices or process in your place of work, which in some way or another are backed by computers. Now, think about what the state of affairs were like before computers began doing those tasks. Think of the level of productivity before and after. Computers make human productivity easier, faster and higher. Rather than struggling to precisely cut out metal shapes by hand for hours, a computer guided CNC machine using the coordinates on the metal sheet are fed into the computer system which can have such cut out in a matter of seconds and hundreds- if not thousands cut out in a matter of a few hours. Computers facilitate the capturing and storing of data, performing calculations to turn the data into information, and communicating both the data and information. They also can control things without constant human intervention, freeing human effort to create wealth. Computers are just the latest advance in information storage and communication, a process that began in ancient Sumer about 6,000 years ago with the invention of writing and the evolution of arithmetic.
Information is essential for economic growth and development; computers are the most recent advancement. Computers improve calculations, Foster new empirical techniques, New data management and production, Removing theoretical strictures, Helping theorem-proving, Replacing theorem-proving, New markets requiring new modes of analysis, New models of behaviour and market interactions inspired by computer science ……

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Effect of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Nigeria’s Economic Growth

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 178 – 188
Date: 28 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Umar Lawal Aliyu

Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty of Management, Department of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, USA

Abstract
This study examined and assessed the empirical link on the effect of fiscal and monetary policy on the Economic Growth of Nigeria. Establishing financial stability and economic growth entails conscious actions by regulatory agencies to stem wide fluctuations in the key macroeconomic indicators. The high point of economic growth of any country include, strengthening the Financial Stability Committee within the its financial institutions, establishment of macro-prudential rules, developing capital markets, development of directional economic policy and of course most importantly the monetary and fiscal policies. The objectives were to determine factors of fiscal and monetary policy that contributed to the growth of Nigeria economy. It made use of data from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Bulletin, journals and employed the ordinary least squares method of statistical analysis. In the research work we he have understood that monetary policy is implemented primarily by the monetary authorities, particularly the central bank, while fiscal policy is implemented by the fiscal authorities, particularly the Ministry of Finance or Treasury. Although monetary and fiscal policies pursue the same ultimate objective, i.e. the attainment of high, stable and sustainable economic growth, they employ different instruments. The research study has noticed that the objectives of monetary policy are ultimately similar to the objectives of fiscal policy and they play crucial role in providing sustainable and credible economic stability in a country, thus creating the environment fast economic growth. The research recommends that policy makers should pay attention to monetary and fiscal variables in their attempt to maintain fiscal stability.

Keywords: Central Bank, Development, Economic Growth, Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Governments all over the world formulate and implement policies for taxation and public spending. These policies can have major impacts on economic growth, income distribution, and poverty, and thus they tend to be at the centre of economic growth and development. Essentially, monetary policy refers to the combination of discretionary measures designed to regulate and control the money supply in an economy by the monetary authorities with a view of achieving stated or desired macro-economic goals. Another point of view posits that monetary policy refers to any conscious action undertaken by the monetary authorities to change or regulate the availability, quantity, cost or direction of credit in any economy, in order to attain stated economic objectives (Nwankwo, 2000).
Fiscal Policy is the process by which Government uses public expenditure, debt, taxation and other revenues to influence economic activities with a view to achieving the set macroeconomic objectives of full employment, favourable balance of payment, price stability and output growth among others. Okunrounmu (2003) described fiscal policy as the deliberate changes in the levels of government expenditure, taxes and other revenue as well as borrowing with a view to achieving national goals or objectives such as price stability, full employment, economic growth and balance of payments equilibrium.
Macroeconomic policy plays crucial role in providing sustainable and credible economic stability in a country, thus creating the environment for fast economic growth. This task is primarily achieved through monetary and fiscal policies as its fundamental components …….

2. Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the per cent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP, (Joseph Schumpeter). While economic development is the growth of the standard of living of a nation’s people from a low-income (poor) economy to a high-income (rich) economy. When the local quality of life is improved, there is more economic development. When social scientists study economic development, they look at many things. As observed by Akpakpan (1999), economic development is used to describe the process of improvement in the various aspects of the economy and the society it supports. The improvement is usually shown in the kinds of desirable changes such as reduction in the level of unemployment, degree of personal and regional inequalities, level of absolute poverty and increase in the real output of goods and services. Others areas of desirable changes include improvement in literacy, housing, health services and in the production capacity. The primary reason for desiring economic development or growth is to raise the general standard of living within the economy. Thus, Economic growth has received much attention among scholars.
Economic growth has long been considered an important goal of economic policy with a substantial body of research dedicated to explaining how this goal can be achieved. Historically, there has been a wide divergence of opinions about the effect of monetary and fiscal policies on the economy. These theories were developed on observed economic trend in both developed and ………

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Impact of Central Bank of Nigeria in Nigeria’s Economic Growth

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 170 – 177
Date: 14 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu

Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty of Management, Department of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, United State of America – USA

Abstract
This paper examines and assesses the effects of Central Bank of Nigeria’ (CBN) economic growth. The traditional functions of a central bank include formulating and implementing monetary policy, determining interest rates and directing money supply – to achieve price stability; regulating and supervising the banking and financial systems, managing foreign reserve and ensuring the stability of financial markets. The empirical works of King and Levine (1993) who, in a cross country study comprising data from 77 countries over the period 1960-1989, found that the level of financial development stimulates economic growth. Consequently, the Central Banks of Nigeria (CBN) have considered ways by using both traditional and unconventional monetary policy instruments to foster growth in Nigeria. The findings from the study revealed that the state of economic development in Nigeria is invariably associated with extent of the growth and development of the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Development finance. According to R.S. Sayers ‘The Central Bank is the organ of Government that undertakes the major financial operations of the Government and by its conduct of these operations and by other means influences the behaviour of financial institutions so as to support the economic growth. The findings from the study revealed that the state of economic development in Nigeria is invariably associated with the roles the Central Bank of Nigeria’s plays in promoting economic growth and development.

Keywords: Central Bank, Development, Economic Growth, Instruments, Monetary Policy.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
It is well acknowledged in economics literature that Central Bank of a country irrespective of the country’s economic or political policies play a major role in promoting economic development through trying to achieve price stability; regulating and supervising the banking and financial systems, managing foreign reserve and ensuring the stability of financial markets. In this regard, for an economy to grow, it should have a well-developed and stable banking system that is resilient to external shocks, which will effectively play the role of financial intermediation. However, enabling healthy financial sector evolution entails the CBN reviewing the basic one-size-fits-all model of banking. This has made possible the emergence of international, national, regional, mono-line and specialized banks such as non-interest banks, etc., with different capital requirements commensurate to the depth of their operations.
Economic growth has long been considered an important goal of economic policy with a substantial body of research dedicated to explaining how this goal can be achieved. One of the earliest works on banking performance and economic growth was ……

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The current liquidity issue and the inadequate lending to the real sector that could result to economic growth have generated considerable discussions. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has risen up to these challenges by ensuring that liquidity in the banking system is adequate and that sectoral credit allocation to the sensitive sectors of the economy (Agriculture, Power, Aviation and SMEs) that will impact on the real sector for growth are handled with all the attention required. In Nigeria, empirical works that focused explicitly on banking sector performance and economic growth have yielded mixed results. Some of these works suggest that banking sector performance has affected positively and significantly on economic growth (see; Adelakun, 2010) while others reported an insignificant relationship between banking sector performance and economic growth ……..

2. Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Framework
In Nigeria, the financial system is the hub of productive activity, as it performs the vital roles of financial intermediation and effecting good payments system, as well as assisting in monetary policy implementation. According to Ofanson et al. (2010) the process of financial intermediation involves the mobilization and allocation of financial resources through the financial (money and capital) markets by financial institutions (banks and non-banks) and by the use of financial instruments (savings, securities and loans).
This paper adopts classical theory of political economy and development in evaluation the relationship between Central Bank and economic growth and development ………

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