Comparative Study on Teacher’s Competency of Public and Private Sector Schools

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Published on International Journal of Teaching & Education
Publication Date: December, 2019

Almas Ikram Kayani, Mamoona Sadiq & Sidra Kiran
Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Journal Full Text PDF: Comparative Study on Teacher’s Competency of Public and Private Sector Schools.

Abstract
Teachers are regarded as nations’ builders. Previous researches confirm the prevalent view that teachers have the strongest impact on student achievement among all the variables under the control of a school. Therefore, they must be sufficiently competent in order to generate best outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify the level of competency of teachers of Public and Private sector schools in Rawalpindi. A questionnaire was developed, in the light of objectives, as instruments of the study was to collect the data form school heads. Responses from the respondents were systematically organized, analyzed and measured after data collection and results were drawn through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Suitable statistical tools, like frequencies, mean, standard deviations and t-test were used to generate results. The results of the study suggested that the teachers belonging to the private sector were more competent than the teachers at public sector, especially the areas of greater competence of private school teachers being Pedagogic Practice, Learning Environment and Personal Growth and Professional Development. Hence, it was concluded that the teachers belonging to the private sector were more competent as compared to the teachers of public sector. But the competency of public-school teachers can be improved if the factors affecting the level of competency are controlled.

Keywords: Competency; Teacher’s competency; factors affecting competency; competency improvement.

1. Introduction
Teachers are regarded as nations’ builders. They are playing a crucial role in shaping the future of nations. Previous researches confirm the prevalent view that teachers have the strongest impact on student achievement among all the variables under the control of a school. Therefore, they must be sufficiently competent in order to generate best outcomes.
Psacharopoulos (1987) showed that even after monitoring for student capacity and socioeconomic background, the rate of academic achievement of learners in private schools in Colombia and Tanzania was greater than those in public schools.
Abid et. Al. (1993) contrasted the use by government and private school teachers of contemporary learning aids. It was discovered that the benefits and efficiency of teaching aids are fully known to educators of both kinds of schools. Teaching aids are used by both kinds of school teachers. However, private school teachers are relatively using more teaching aids and models.
Andrabi et. Al. (2002) discovered that in terms of improving the literacy rate and quality of education, private schools were more effective as compared to government schools. Primarily because private schools had low student to teacher ratio as compared to government schools as private schools had a smaller number of students.
Guskey (2000) explains that there is a connection between facilitating the professional development of teachers by school officials and the efficiency of teaching. Similarly, it is essential for school head to understand the educational requirements of educators to orchestrate an efficient teaching and learning atmosphere student’s better accomplishment. Research connects classroom instruction of educators with the degree of learning of students.
The competency of teachers should be evaluated periodically and must be improved through trainings and professional development programs. Present study was focused on determining the level of competency of teachers of Public and Private sector schools in Rawalpindi, and devised ways to identify factors influencing it.
Objective of the Study;
The objective of the study was to identify the level of competency of teachers of Public and Private sector schools in Rawalpindi

2. Methodology
This research study was descriptive in nature and survey was conducted to assess teacher’s competency of Public and Private sector schools in Rawalpindi.

2.1 Population
The population of this study was all the male and female teachers and school heads in the district Rawalpindi. There were total 331 public and 205 private schools registered in district Rawalpindi.

2.2 Sample
53 school heads and 109 school teachers of the public schools, whereas 41 school heads and 86 school teachers of the private schools were taken as sample.

2.3 Instrument of the Research
A questionnaire was developed as instruments of the study to collect the data. The Questionnaire was to be filled by secondary school heads of public and private schools in Rawalpindi in order to assess the level of teachers’ competency. The respondents were requested to respond to each item on a five-point Likert scale.

2.4 Validity
The tool was implemented in the pilot testing phase to 28 teachers and 6 school heads. To calculate the scale’s internal consistency, an alpha value was calculated which was 0.741. According to Field (2009), if the alpha value can be roughly above 0.7, this implies that the alpha’s calculated value is sufficient to assess the tool’s reliability.

2.5 Data Analysis
Responses from the respondents were systematically organized, analyzed and measured after data collection and results were drawn through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Suitable statistical tools, like frequencies, mean, standard deviations and t-test were used to generate results considering the research objectives.

3. Findings
The responses obtained from the school heads in questionnaire were coded as 5 to 1 from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree (Likert scale) and the data thus obtained was broken down with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results in the form of percent response were obtained and are presented in tabular form.

3.1 Content Knowledge
Table 1: School heads regarding content knowledge of teachers

The calculated mean value for the responses of school heads of public schools (Mean = 3.82, SD = 0.77), which is higher than the mean value obtained from public-school heads (Mean = 3.71, SD = 0.84), indicated that private schools had more specialist teachers having degrees in relevant subjects than public schools. The mean value for the responses of private-school heads (Mean = 4.00, SD = 0.70) regarding the curriculum framework was also higher than that of public-school heads (Mean = 3.60, SD = 1.14). It showed that the teachers at private schools were more aware of the curriculum framework than teachers at public school. However, the mean value for the private-school heads’ responses (Mean = 3.82, SD = 0.94) was lower than the mean value for the public-school heads’ responses (Mean = 3.88, SD = 0.93) that showed that more teachers of the public school planned the syllabus of their respective subject before academic year began. Furthermore, the teachers at public schools implemented the planned syllabus more strictly as compared with private-school teachers as evident from the mean value of the responses from private-school heads (Mean = 3.51, SD = 1.14) which was also lower than that (Mean = 3.83, SD = 1.05) of public-school heads.

3.2 Pedagogic Practice
Table 2: School heads regarding pedagogic practice adopted by teachers

The mean value of the responses of private-school heads (Mean = 3.97, SD = 0.47) was higher than that of public-school heads (Mean = 3.64, SD = 0.90) which depicted that the practice of preparing lesson plan before lecture was more common among the teachers belonging to private sector as compared to the teachers belonging to public sector. The teaching methodology adopted by teachers at private schools also appeared to be better than that of public-school teachers as the mean value of responses of private-school heads (Mean = 4.02, SD = 0.53) was greater than that of public-school heads (Mean = 3.81, SD = 3.81, SD 0.73). Moreover, more teachers of private sector understood the fact that students learn at different paces as compared to public-school teachers which is evident from the difference in the mean value of responses of private-school heads (Mean = 3.90, SD = 0.70) and public-school heads (Mean = 3.66, SD = 0.97). The mean value of private-school heads’ responses (Mean = 3.87, SD = 0.81) was greater than that of public-school heads (Mean = 3.45, SD = 0.99) which represented the fact that private-school teachers identified the students who were at risk and gave special attention to them better than the public-school teachers.

3.3 Assessment
Table 3: School heads regarding assessment of students by teachers

The value of the mean responses obtained from heads of private schools (Mean = 4.19, SD = 0.40) was greater than that obtained from heads of public schools (Mean = 4.16, SD = 0.37) which showed that the students at private schools are more frequently assessed for their learning progress as compared to students at public schools. Whereas, public-school teachers took more daily classroom-tests or oral assessments as compared to the private schools as the mean value of responses obtained from private-school heads (Mean = 4.00, SD = 0.59) was less than that obtained from public-school heads (Mean = 4.07, SD = 0.51). However, the difference in the mean values of responses of private-school heads (Mean = 4.17, SD = 0.38) public-school heads (Mean = 4.15, SD = 0.45) suggested that more teachers at private schools used the results of such assessments to design their future teaching methodology as compared to the teachers at public schools.

3.4 Learning Environment
Table 4: School heads regarding the learning environment provided by teachers

The teachers at private schools provided the students with better learning environment as compared to public school teachers as the value of mean responses from heads of private sector (Mean = 3.87, SD = 0.81) was higher than that of public sector (Mean = 3.71, SD = 0.96). The mean value of responses of heads of the private schools (Mean = 3.53, SD = 1.20) was higher than the mean value of public-school heads’ responses (Mean = 3.35, SD = 1.17) which represented that private-school teachers took more care of the classroom resources as compared to the public-school teachers. The teachers at private schools were also better at demonstrating the behavior expected of students by showing positive attitude as compared to public school teachers which is evident from the difference in the mean values of the responses of private-school heads (Mean = 4.09 with SD = 0.49) and public-school heads (Mean = 3.92, SD = 0.80). The mean value of responses of school heads belonging to private sector (Mean = 4.17, SD = 0.38) was higher than the mean value of responses of school heads belonging to public sector (Mean = 4.11, SD = 0.37) which showed that the teachers at private schools were also better at adopting positive discipline and non-violent methods of managing students’ behavior.

3.5 t-Test
It is evident from the results of percent responses of the school heads belonging to both public and private sectors, if seen carefully, that school teachers of the private sector are somewhat more competent than the school teachers of the public sector. However, the difference in results could be very confusing in some cases. Hence, we performed t-test for the equality of means in order to establish if there a difference between the two groups i.e., Public Sector (Group 1) or Private Sector (Group 2). For doing so, we computed the results of all the respondents of public and private sectors separately by adding all the responses of each respondent and then calculated the mean (of these cumulated response) of all the respondents. The data obtained is given in Table 5.

Table 5: Cumulative means and standard deviations of the school heads’ responses

3.6 Levene’s Test for the Equality of Variances
The result of Levene’s Test suggested that the variances should be assumed equal as the value of Sig. i.e., 0.157 came out to be greater than 0.05. Therefore, result of t-test performed by assuming equal variances (first row of Table 6) should be considered for further analysis.

3.7 t-Test for the Equality of Means
As we assumed equal variances for the t-test, as suggested by the Levene’s Test, the value of Sig. (2-tailed) came out to be 0.005 which is less than 0.05. This suggested that there is significant difference in the mean scores of the two groups (Public Sector and Private Sector) and the null hypothesis which assumed the means of two groups to be equal was rejected.
Furthermore, the t value in the result of t-test was -2.88. The negative sign implied that the mean of Group 1 (Public Sector) was less than the mean of Group 2 (Private Sector). Hence, the result of t-test led us to decision that the level of competency of private-school teachers was greater than that of public-school teachers.

Table 6: Levene’s test for the equality of variances and t-Test for the equality of means

4. Discussion
Implementation of formal education at all levels can be held through public and private schools. Public schools organized by the government, known as public schools. However, due to the limited capacity of public schools, it can also be implemented through private schools. Although the same curriculum standards, but in practice can differ. This is because the quality of learning is influenced by several factors, one of the important factors that influence the teachers’ competence in teaching.
Present study was undertaken to determine the level of competency of teachers of public and private sector schools in Rawalpindi and to investigate the factors affecting the competency of teachers. The study was also aimed to develop a framework for the enhancement of teachers’ competency depending upon those factors.
In order to complete objectives of the study, a questionnaire and checklist were self-developed. The questionnaire was aimed to explore the perceptions of school heads from both public and private sectors in order to assess the level of competency of teachers from both sectors. The checklist was developed to obtain the views of teachers belonging to both public and private sector and the factors that affected the teachers’ competency were assessed based on the views of teachers.
The findings of the study revealed that the teachers at private schools are somewhat more competent as compared to public-school teachers in respect of content knowledge. As the results showed, private schools had more specialist teachers (Mean = 3.82) holding degrees in relevant subjects and were more aware of the curriculum framework (Mean = 4.00), they would a better understanding and knowledge about the subject they taught and could perform more efficiently as compared to public school teachers. Although public school teachers planned the entire syllabus before the academic year began (Mean = 3.88) and stuck to that planned syllabus strictly during the year (Mean = 3.83) better than the teachers of private schools, the latter designed and changed the teaching methodology depending upon students’ assessments. Which could be considered as a better technique to improve students’ learning.
Private-school teachers were also found to be better at pedagogic practices than public-school teachers. As per the findings of the research, the teachers at private schools properly planned their lectures before delivering them (Mean = 3.97) more regularly compared to teachers at public schools. And the method of delivering the lecture used by the teachers at private schools, such as simple language, interactive sessions, class activities, real life and simple examples, was also better (Mean = 4.02) as compared to teachers of public schools. Furthermore, private-school teachers were more conscious of the fact that students learned at different paces (Mean = 3.90) and identified students who were at risk and gave them special attention (Mean = 3.87) better than public-school teachers.
As stated in the findings, students at private schools were assessed for their learning more regularly and periodically (Mean = 4.19) as compared to the students at public schools. Public-school teachers took more daily classroom tests and oral assessments (More = 4.07) than private-school teachers. In contrast, the teachers at private schools were more apt to design their future teaching methodology based on students’ assessment results (Mean = 4.17) as compared to public-school teachers. In general, private-school teachers appeared to be more competent than public-school teachers, when it came to when it came to students’ assessments.
The findings of the present study revealed that private schools surpassed the public schools in providing the students with a better learning environment as well. Private-school teachers were found to be able to provide the students, particularly those who needed special attention, with a student-friendly and conductive environment that met the students’ socio-economic needs (Mean = 3.87) better than the teachers belonging to public schools. In addition, the teachers of the private schools appeared to take care of the classroom resources (by ensuring that the technologies, and learning materials are safe, clean, complete, and used appropriately) to greater extent (Mean = 3.53) than public school teachers. Also, the private-school teachers worked harder to demonstrate behavior expected of students (Mean = 4.09), by showing a positive attitude consistently, than public-school teachers. The teachers at public schools also adopted more positive discipline and non-violent methods of managing student’s behavior (Mean =4.17) as compared to public-school teachers.
It is evident from the findings of research based on the percent responses of the school heads belonging to both public and private sectors, if seen carefully, that school teachers of the private sector are somewhat more competent than the school teachers of the public sector. However, the difference in results could be very confusing in some cases. Hence, we performed t-test for the equality of means in order to establish if there a difference between the two groups i.e., Public Sector (Group 1) or Private Sector (Group 2). The result of Levene’s Test suggested that the variances should be assumed equal, therefore, result of t-test performed by assuming equal variances were considered for further analysis. The results of the t-test suggested that there is significant difference in the mean scores of the two groups (Public Sector and Private Sector). Furthermore, the t value in the result of t-test was negative which implied that the mean of Group 1 (Public Sector) was less than the mean of Group 2 (Private Sector). Hence, the result of t-test led us to decision that the level of competency of private-school teachers was greater than that of public-school teachers.

5. Conclusion
Data was collected and descriptive statistical tools were employed to draw findings on the bases of the views of respondents. The results of the study suggested that the teachers belonging to the private sector were more competent than the teachers at public sector. Major areas of greater competence of private school teachers being Pedagogic Practice, Learning Environment and Personal Growth and Professional Development. The study revealed that in the areas such as Students’ Assessment, Content Knowledge and Engagement and Collaboration, the level of competency of both private and public sector school teachers was somewhat comparable. Nonetheless, the overall competence of private school teachers exceeded that of public-school teachers.
Hence, it is concluded that the teachers belonging to the private sector are more competent as compared to the teachers at public sector. But the competency of public-school teachers can be improved if the factors affecting the level of competency are controlled.

6. Recommendation
The following recommendations are made on the basis of the analysis, interpretation and findings of our research:
The teachers at public school should be provided with financial support in terms of incentives, bonuses, medical facilities, etc. This would motivate teachers to put extra efforts to improve students’ output. The environment of the public schools should be improved, and the teachers must be facilitated with comfortable staffrooms and other utility items so that they feel more relaxed and comfortable within the school. Furthermore, facilities such as libraries, computers and av-aids for the teachers should also be improved in order to make teachers, at public schools, able to design and deliver their lectures more efficiently
The competency of public-school teachers could be improved by having more schools or expanding the existing schools and hiring more staff in order to reduce the burden of teachers. A low student to teacher ratio can improve a teacher’s performance. Further research is required in order to establish the exact needs of teachers which they think are not being fulfilled by current state of their job.

7. References
Abid, N., Ishfaq, M., and Gondal, M. (1993). Private schoolon our government schoolon kay usatizah mein jadeed tadreesi muawnaat kay istimal ka moazna. Master’s Thesis. Lahore: IER, University of the Punjab.
Andrabi, T., Das, J., Khwaja, A., Vishwanath, T., & Zajonc, T. (2002). Test Feasibility Survey, Pakistan: Education Sector. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School Working Paper.
Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. 3rd Edition, Sage Publication Ltd., London.
Guskey, T. R., & Sparks, D. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Corwin Press.
Psacharopoulos, G. (1987). Public versus private schools in developing countries: Evidence from Colombia and Tanzania. International Journal of Educational Development, 7(1), 59-67.