Effect of Tobacco Pesticide on the Population of Major Pests and Yield of Groundnut and Sesame Intercropping Plantation

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Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 2, Issue 1, page 118 – 125
Publication Date: 21 February 2019

Khin Myint Mar
Associate Professor, Department of Zoology
University of Magway
Myanmar

Journal Full Text PDF: UEffect of Tobacco Pesticide on the Population of Major Pests and Yield of Groundnut and Sesame Intercropping Plantation (Case at Jokekone Village, Taungdwingyi Township, Magway Region).

Abstract
This study was conducted in field experiment of groundnut and sesame intercropping plantation in Jokekone Village, Taungdwingyi Township, Magway Region during December 2012 to March 2013. Two pesticides, the synthetic pesticide (Shweseta Brand, a mixture of N-cyano-N-methyl acetamidine) and tobacco pesticide (home-made) were tested for the control of major insect pests. The experimental design was replicated three times in pesticide-free and pesticide-affected plots. A plot measuring 2m x 2m was chosen for field experiment. In the present study, the results revealed that all the three species (Nezara viridula, Dysdercus cingulatus and Aulacophora foveicollis) of major pests were comparatively controlled by the synthetic pesticide as well as tobacco pesticide. The average yield of groundnut was (862.0 Kg/ha) in control plots, (1223.7 Kg/ha) in tobacco pesticide plots, and (1195.8 Kg/ha) in synthetic pesticides plots. The average yield of sesame seed was (305.8 Kg/ha) in control plots, (472.8 Kg/ha) in tobacco pesticide plots and (528.0 Kg/ha) in synthetic pesticide plots. According to the yield, the average yield of groundnut in tobacco and the synthetic pesticide treated plots was approximately the same and higher than that in control plots. The average yield of sesame in tobacco pesticide treated plots was slightly lower than that in the synthetic pesticide treated plots, but higher than that in control plots. It was suggested that the tobacco pesticide was equally effective as the synthetic pesticide in controlling the pest population and also in yield of crops. From the data obtained, it was suggested that bio-pesticide is cheap and easy access to farmers and ecofriendly to our environment.

Keywords: Intercropping, Nezara Viridula, Dysdercus Cingulatus, Aulacophora Foveicollis, Tobacco Pesticide, Yield.

1. INTRODUCTION
All over the world the use of pesticides is increasing because of the need to feed the world’s ever-expanding population while the amount of land available for food production is diminishing (Dugje et al., 2008). Pesticides are known to have played a significant role in the improvement of crop yields during the last four to five decades (Khan et al., 2010). The behavior of a pesticide in the environment depends on its stability, physico-chemical properties, the nature of the medium into which it is applied, the organisms present in the soil, and the prevailing climatic conditions (Graham-Bryce, 1981). Some of the negative effects of pesticide misuse include low crop yield, destruction of soil micro-fauna and flora, and undesirable residue accumulation in food crops (Edwards, 1986).
In advanced countries, strict pesticide regulation and enforcement mechanisms are put in place to ensure their safe use and proper handling. The control schemes for the sale and use of pesticide is based on scientific data that support its effectiveness against target pests and not unduly hazardous to human health and the environment. Pesticide use in most developing countries is, however, based solely on manufacturer’s recommendations. These recommendations include data on toxicological and environmental properties of the pesticides. Although useful, those may not be appropriate under local conditions since they were tested under different agro-climatic and socio-cultural conditions. Over the last decades, farmers and growers have changed the way of food production in order to meet the expectations of consumers, governments and more recently, food processors and retailers. In doing so, they have made many changes to the way they farm, including the extensive use of pesticides. They have done this principally to prevent or reduce agricultural losses to pests, resulting in improved yield and greater availability of food, at a reasonable price, all year round (Raghavendra et al., 2006).
Intercropping is “the cultivation of two or more crops at the same time in the same field”. A wide range of crops such as tomato-maize, maize-legume, maize-velvet bean, maize-cowpea in Africa and pigeon pea-maize, maize-potato in Asia can be used for intercropping. Generally there are four basic types of intercropping; namely mixed intercropping, row intercropping, strip intercropping and relay intercropping (Ramert et al., 2001). It is a traditional practice that has persisted over years among the farming community of the developing world. Mixed cropping and intercropping are known to reduce insect pest infestations. Natural enemies of the insect pests may be enhanced by mixed cropping through improved shelter, humid conditions and possible availability of food sources (honey or nectar) (Shivaprasad, 2008).
Myanmar is developing country based on agriculture. Sesame and groundnut plants are major oil seed crops in the middle region, the dry zone of Myanmar. Therefore, Magway Region is so called “large pot of oil” in Myanmar. For many years, crop rotations have been recommended in Myanmar because of the temporal diversity they provide in plant species and their resource requirements. Intercropping is an important planting system in the study area where mixed intercropping of groundnut and sesame plants was commonly farmed.
Moreover, it is cheap and easy to access for rural people. For the above reasons, the field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of tobacco mixed with other ingredients as home-made pesticides on population dynamics of major pests on groundnut and sesame intercropping field and the yield. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to introduce the efficiency of tobacco pesticides (home-made) to gardeners and farmers, to compare the effects of tobacco pesticide with the synthetic pesticides on the population of some pests of groundnut and sesame and to compare the yield of groundnut and sesame in the experimental plots.

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Glover-Amengor and Tettch (2008) concluded that the yield trends observed so far showed that lower rates of application of pesticides may be more desirable as they reduce the pesticide burden on the environment and are more economical as far as cost of pesticides is concerned. Lindane did not have any advantage over the other pesticides as it caused the least increase in yield. Moreover, the pesticides also affect the microbial population of the soil even though micro- organisms are responsible for most of the degradation of pesticides in the soil.
Aswathanarayanareddy et al., 2006 reported that all the intercropped treatments were significantly superior in reducing the pest infestation on chilli and had significantly higher yield compared to sole crop of chilli. According to Mogahed (2003) the average yield of potato was enhanced significantly in intercropped plots compared to those, with sole crop of potato.
This may be attributed to presence of certain volatile substance present in the intercrop plants that might restrict colonization of the main crops by important pests. However, further work is needed to elucidate the underlying phenomenon more comprehensively.
Aye Aye Maw (2007) reported the effectiveness of neem pesticide on the population of some insect pests of groundnut and Mungbean cultivation, Magway Region, Myanmar.
In 2012, Deshmukh et al. concluded that nicotinic acid derivatives showed the promising activities against green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, American boll worm, Helicoverpa armigera and stored grain pest, maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.
In 2012, Meles et al. investigated the insecticidal and repellent properties of selected medicinal plants collected from Sofoho, Axum, North East Africa. In which tree tobacco has powerful chemicals like nicotine and anabasine. These chemicals are important in repelling and killing of insects but need other investigation of the insecticidal property of this extract.