Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: April 17, 2019
Dety Mulyanti & Muhammad Fikri
University of Bale Bandung
Nusantara Islamic University Bandung
Journal Full Text PDF: Processing of Tofu Production to the Community Health.
Nuts and tubers are quickly exposed to the fungus (aflatoxin) so easily become withered and rotten. To solve this problem, the material needs to be preserved. Processed products can be foods such as chips, tofu and tempeh, and beverages such as powder and soy milk. Soy contains 35% protein even in the superior varieties of protein content can reach 40-43%.compared with rice, corn, cassava flour, green beans, meat, fresh fish, and chicken eggs, soybeans have a higher protein content, almost equal to the dried milk protein content. Control of soil, water, and air pollution is a part of the process of environmental quality management. One of the air processing is by applying air pollution control technology in the form of air pollution controller, this is an effort to reduce emission to conform to the established quality standard.one way to minimize water and soil pollution is by applying wastewater filtering technology, this is an attempt to separate waste that should not be disposed of in the community. The increased production that occurs in the tofu industry makes the resulting pollution increases, the resulting emissions are a by-product of the tofu manufacturing process. The smell of the tofu production results shows a less than perfect waste treatment system.therefore it is necessary to evaluate the tofu factory that is used so that it can be done to the improvement of the waste industrial waste to be safe for the environment.
Keywords: Production, Processing, Waste, Tofu, Health.
Tofu which is rich in protein, has long been consumed by the people of Indonesia as a side dish. Tofu is a food made from fermented soybeans and soured. Unlike the original tempe from Indonesia, tofu comes from China, as do soy sauce, tauco, bakpau, and meatballs.know is the word absorption of the Hokkien (tauhu) hanyu pinyin : doufu) which literally means “fermented soybeans”. Tofu first appeared in China since the Han Dynasty around 2200 years ago. Its founder is Liu An (Hanzi) who is a nobleman, grandson of Emperor Han Gaozu, Liu Bang who founded the Han Dynasty.
In Japan known as tofu. Carried by Chinese immigrants, these foods spread to East Asia and Southeast Asia, and eventually to the rest of the world. In Kediri know yellow into a typical food. There is also about yellow know history. Like tempeh, tofu is known as folk food. Various types of tofu that exist in Indonesia is generally known for its origin manufacture area, for example Sumedang and Kediri Tofu. Based on data obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics and National Socioeconomic Survey (2002), the level of tofu and tempeh consumption in Indonesia reached 18.6 kg / capita / year in urban areas and 13.9 kg / capita / year in rural areas. This amount is more than fourfold when compared with the consumption rate of chicken and beef which is a source of animal protein. This is because the price of tofu and tempeh is much more affordable when compared with the price of meat. Tofu is a food made from soybeans, processed with fermentation and taken sari. In other words, tofu is the soybean curd, which is soybean milk made into thick (curd) and then printed and pressed (FG Winarno: 1993)
Problem from the processing of tofu is about the health of the people around the tofu factory. Which we have to cope well with. The Tofu Factory has often not been properly handled so that it has an impact on the environment. One is the impact of waste-odor of solid and liquid waste. Tofu waste contains high protein, the consequences cause the exhaust gas in the form of Ammonia / Nitrogen and Sulfur is not tasty and disrupt health. Until now the risk of this odor is still no way out while on the other hand the tofu product is a favorite food that almost always exist in the consumption of small communities up to the upper class society.the negative impacts that the plant has on display threaten the continuity of the business and further the availability of tofu to the public, as it threatens to close / prohibit operations. Other avenues that can be done are usually through factory relocation which results in increased production costs and price of tofu.
Tofu is one of the staple foods in the country, which is included in a perfect 4 (four) healthy 5 (five) meals. Tofu is also a food that contains many nutrients and is fairly easy to produce. To produce tofu the ingredients needed only in the form of soybeans. It is not surprising that today we can find a lot of tofu-making factories, whether in the form of small businesses and medium-sized businesses that still use conventional methods or efforts that have been quite successful in a more modern way. Based upon above matters, we are interested to make the Tofu Factory as the material of our production process paper.
The location of our tofu manufacture factory is located in Sumedang area. This factory is a tofu manufacturing plant that is categorized as small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The way of making the tofu is still in a conventional way so that the role of the individual or in this case the workers are very large in the process of making it.
Factory established since 1983 was founded by Mr. H. Lani. The factory was built in the compound of his own house, and still survive to this day. The process of making this tofu takes place in a space measuring 10 m x 7 m. And in this space the process of tofu production takes place constantly. There are 7 workers with the different task. There is a duty to grind, steaming and filtering (2 people). There is a job to print (2 people). There is a duty to organize it in large cans before finally boiled (2 people). And there is also a task to fry the next-come (1 person).
In the room that the equipment used can be practically simple and still very traditional. The first time entering the door of the room we will see a conventional steam engine made of two drums that serve as a steam catcher. The steam or heat collected by drums also comes from burned wood instead of steam engines. So initially the wood will be burned near the drum. Then the steam heat will accumulate in the drum before it will eventually be channeled through the iron pipes to the storage tanks. This technique is a substitute for soybean poaching techniques, this factory does not boil their soybeans but uses evaporative techniques.
There is also a grinding machine. The only one machine that we think keep the continuity of the production process know. In addition there are 4 tubs of stone used as a container for soybean juice steamed and also as a reservoir of water. Then there are 4 plastic tubs used to precipitate the tofu.there are 25 molds from wood to print out the tofu. There are a lot of big tin that will be used as a container when tofu is made. And a big fryer that uses firewood for frying tofu. As well as wooden shelves to accommodate the uninformed ones.
With all these simple equipment this factory stands and lives its employees from 1983 to present. Tofu which produced in Pak H. Lani’s factory is a tofu product known as Tahu Jambi. At a glance we must be confused to hear the name of Tahu Jambi. Actually this is the usual Tahu Sumedang, but because Pak Haji wanted something different name for his tofu production then named as Tahu Jambi. In accordance with the name of Pak Haji’s home village in Jambi.
The factory was built by himself long before he had a family. And it was a business he started since he was young. Today the nett revenue collected per day can reach more than Rp. 2,000,000, -. It can be said that production of this tofu is a promising business.
In a day Pak Haji needs 3 hundred kilograms of soybeans to meet their production quota. Soybeans are obtained from trusted suppliers because according to Pak Haji, these suppliers provide soybeans with good quality at a reasonable price-not discarded.
Furthermore, the soybean processed by the tofu workers. From 3 hundred kgs of soybeans, it will be converted into ± 210 packages of tofu. Each package of tofu usually sold at a price of Rp. 20,000, – up to Rp. 24.000, –
Roughly it can be calculated that Pak Haji’s income about Rp. 4.830.000, – with this turnover, tofu business built and maintained. But of course not all tofu will be sold in the market. The biggest market of Tahu Jambi products, according to Pak Haji is the Fritters Vendors (Tukang Gorengan). Each of them usually orders up to 7 boards (mold) tofu every day. That’s why Mr. H. Lani’s tofu factory continues to stand up to this moment. With a capital not too large he can get a turnover that is more than enough to hire employees, business capital, and off course, to support his own family. It can be concluded that the production of this tofu is a promising business. Absorb the workforce. And rarely suffered losses due to the large market of tofu in Indonesia.
1.2 Formulation of the problem
The formulation of the issues to be discussed in this paper, including : tofu and what kind of ingredient to make tofu, impact of tofu production and processing to the public health, overcome and utilize the tofu and waste dregs.
1.3 Research purposes
The purpose of this paper is : process the tofu and the ingredients, the positive and negative impacts of tofu processing, cope and utilize the waste of tofu produced, the tofu business
In this paper discusses several aspects, namely : tofu and what kind of ingredient to make tofu, the process of production and processing of tofu to health, cope and use of tofu waste, business Analysis of tofu
1.5 Benefits of research
The benefits of making this paper are, as follows : in order for readers to know the tofu and its material, in order for readers to know how to produce and processing tofu, readers can tackle and utilize exactly the waste of tofu, readers can analyze the business of tofu, reader has a clear concept of know-how of tofu business, an inspiration to the readers.
2.1 Understanding The Process
“Processing is a process of working or doing something to be more perfect.” Based on those understanding, concluded that the purpose is process of supervision on a policy of goals on implementation and achievement.
2.2 Understanding The Tofu
Tofu is a food made from the deposition of the soybean juice that coagulated. Tofu comes from China, as do soy sauce, tauco, bakpau, and meatballs. The name “Tahu” is an uptake of the Hokkian language (tauhu, which literally means “fermented soybeans.”). Tahu has been known in China since the Han dynasty around 2200 years ago The inventor is Liu An (Hanzi: who is a nobleman, grandson of Emperor Han Gaozu, Liu Bang who founded the Han dynasty. The known version Tofu in Japan is also tofu. Tofu is more soft and less resistant to processing. Tofu and tofu brought Chinese immigrants to all corners of the world spreading to East Asia and Southeast Asia, and finally to the whole world. Tofu in Indonesia, Tofu has experienced indigenization in Indonesia so that there are various variants of tofu and snacks made from tofu. The outer appearance of tofu is white or yellow. Due to its popularity, it has become an indispensable part of the eating places of various social levels in Indonesia, together with tempe.