Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: March, 2019
Jayasooriya. S. S. W.
Impulsive buying behavior is common and ordinary behavior that most people makes on purchasing from time to time. There are empirical studies that discussed the impulsive buying behavior of the customers. In Sri Lankan context as an emerging industry most of the tourist follow impulsive buying behavior in the restaurants due to various reasons. Accordingly, paper investigates the concept of impulsive buying behavior and factors that influence to impulsive buying behavior in luxurious restaurants in Sri Lanka. Paper accomplishes research propositions in line with the empirical justifications encouraging future research priorities.
Keywords: Sri Lankan Tourism Industry, Impulsive Buying Behavior, Consumer Buying Behavior.
Consumer buying behavior is some total of consumer’s attitudes, preferences, intentions and decision-making process. Buying behavior can be learned from various disciplines such as anthropology, social science, psychology and economics. (Bhateliya, 2016). Impulse buying is defined as a sudden and powerful urge in the consumer to buy immediately. It occurs when desire for a product or brand outweighs one’s willpower to resist. Research on impulse buying focuses on characteristic of individuals that make them more or less likely to engage in impulse buying. (Faber, 2010). These include mood states, personality characteristics, and situational factors such as proximity and depletion in resources needed for self‐control. Impulsive buying is the tendency of a customer to buy goods and services without planning in advance. When a customer takes such buying decisions at the spur of the moment, it is usually triggered by emotions and feelings. (Definition of ‘Impulsive Buying’, 2018)
1.1 Purpose of the Study
Some studies argue hospitality sector is a crucial context to increase customer experiences. Weinberg & Gottwald (1982) mentioned that impulsive buying is in fact an unplanned behavior but that does not mean unplanned buying is always impulsive. Further they asserted that impulsive buying is an action that is decided by consumers’ emotional side, cognitive side, and instinctive side. Therefore, this paper attempts to investigate the factors that influence the consumer impulsive buying behavior in restaurants based on in empirical studies connected to impulsive and consumer buying behavior. Additionally, this paper contributes to existing knowledge as a conceptual review to synthesize the factors related to consumer impulsive buying behavior and claimed in future research directions.
This paper based on deductive approach in which arguments and explanations are mainly supported by empirical evidences and associated theoretical contents. Alongside, authors reviewed journal articles and industry publications to review the concepts and applications related to consumer buying behavior. Accordingly, literature review was employed as the main research tool. Paper attempted to discuss the factors related to tourist impulsive buying behavior in Sri Lakan restaurants. Paper is organized as a concept paper whilst arguments were empirically supported. Finally, authors discuss and conclude the paper by suggesting future research directions in line with the synthesized discussions.
2. Theoretical Review on Consumer Impulsive Buying Behavior
Empirical studies still argue that Impulsive ordering behavior is an issue of great importance for revenue maximization in the luxury restaurant industry (Hyun, Han, & Kim, 2015). Impulsive ordering behavior in the luxury restaurant context as a sudden and immediate order from a menu with no preordering intentions either to try the specific menu category or to fulfill a specific menu preference. More specifically, an impulsive order occurs under one of two conditions.
In the first scenario, patrons already have items to order in a mind before they arrive at a restaurant. After browsing the menu, they discuss the current day’s menu and then impulsively order additional menu items with no preordering intentions. In the second scenario, patrons do not know exactly what they wish to order before they arrive at a restaurant. After reviewing the menu, they impulsively order menu items with no preordering intentions. Whether or not patrons have a menu in mind prior to arriving at a restaurant therefore does not influence impulsive menu ordering behaviors. (Hyun, Han, & Kim, 2015). When consumers buy a product, they do not think about whether they need it. Rather, it will result in immediate purchase to satisfy the buying duty, which leads to impulsive buying behavior. Impulsive buying behavior relates to a sudden purchase, accompanied by strong feelings of joy and excitement (Rook & Hoch, “Consuming impulses, 1985).
2.1 Factors that influence Impulse Buying Behavior.
Today impulse buying becomes a usual behavior of customers. Customers went to market with intention to purchase something that they need but sometimes they unintentionally buy something that they don’t need but they feel attracted to that product they buy it
Researchers distinguish between primary motives and selective motives (Kollmuss, 2012). Primary motives refer to the broader reasons for an individual to engage in a whole set of behaviors (e.g., striving to live a healthy lifestyle by making smart food choices or striving to have a hedonic lifestyle by indulging in culinary pleasures). In contrast, selective motives are more immediate and situational that influence one specific action (e.g., I want to treat myself to a nice meal to feel better after a long and stressful day at work). Primary motives are stable and chronic goals that guide an individual’s overall behavior, while selective motives are transient and situational goals that direct one specification. Prior research suggests that either a primary or selective motive can be dominant in a situation once people perceive it to be the most powerful in that setting. Motives underlying food consumption and food choices include factors such as health, indulgence (sensory enjoyment), price, or familiarity (Steptoe & Pollard,, 1995). When focus on two food motives, health and indulgence. Following the primary-selective motive distinction, food motives are considered as primary motives in the context of this study because an individual’s general approach to food is stable and governs a set of behaviors involving food consumption. Mood is considered a selective motive in this study because affect-regulation motive (e.g., eat to feel better) in food consumption is situational and only directs one specific action when the mood state calls for the use of food as an external stimulus to improve the mood state. Therefore, studies are argued, primary motives were operationalized into food motives (health or indulgence) and selective motives were operationalized into affective motives. individuals with a primary food motive of indulgence are likely to have a script that facilitates behaviors leading to the sensory enjoyment of the dining experience. As a result, sensory stimuli present in the purchase environment are more accessible to the individuals with an indulgence motive, making them more susceptible to impulse buying. In contrast, individuals with a primary health motive possess scripts with sets of behaviors that enact healthful food choices. As the long-term health benefits are salient in their food motives, one can expect the deviations from the scripted behavior to be minimal, making them less likely to yield to temptations that may compromise their long-term health goals. (Miao & Mattila, 2014).
2.2 Sri Lankan Hospitality Industry – Development of the Restaurant Industry Due to Sri Lankan Tourism Industry
The concept of hospitality and hospitableness is well handled. It addresses the contemporary debates that hospitality is used as a word to describe a variety of sectors initially motivated by a public relation need to cloud over the commercial nature of hotels, restaurants, and bars.
Restaurant is a public place. Provide Food and Beverage on a commercial basis. This is open to all to take refreshment, Food and beverage. Everybody can take food and Beverage against money. Restaurant offer service of Food and Beverage desires to satisfy the Guest. Guest take Rest in restaurant and pay Rent for the having refreshment, food and beverage. Restaurant comes from the word of “Rest and Rent”. “Rest & Rent” those words consisting the word restaurant. Where the guest/client/peoples take their Food & beverage (F&B Service, 2018).
In the last couple of years Sri Lanka has been witnessing a sharp increase in the number of restaurants in the country. This exciting trend has the potential to boost to restaurant and food and beverage industry. Considering that the island nation is currently one of the top tourist destinations, the restaurant industry in the country is also getting ready to grab its share of business. With competition increasingly, restaurants are redefining themselves to not only serve food but provide guests a whole new dining experience. Given that today’s diners are expecting more from restaurant than just top-quality food, restaurants across Sri Lanka have taken a step forward to integrate technology into their operations. (Grow Your Restaurant Business with Smart Restaurant Management Software, 2013).
3. Conclusion and Further Research Directions
According to the investigation of the past researches, they consider Impulse buying as a sudden and powerful urge in the consumer to buy immediately. It occurs when desire for a product or brand outweighs one’s willpower to resist. Research on impulse buying focuses on characteristic of individuals that make them more or less likely to engage in impulse buying. (Faber, 2010). These include mood states, personality characteristics, and situational factors such as proximity and depletion in resources needed for self‐control. Impulsive buying is the tendency of a customer to buy goods and services without planning in advance. When a customer takes such buying decisions at the spur of the moment, it is usually triggered by emotions and feelings. And most of the empirical studies still argues that factors that increase impulsive buying behavior of consumer in restaurant industry based on people motivation, attitudes, perception, preference. Thus, future research works are encouraged to investigate how environmental factors, for instance interior and exterior design of the restaurant, heritage value of the tourist destination, authenticity of food affect to consumer buying behavior in restaurant industry.
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