Published on International Journal of Forestry & Plantation
Publication Date: August, 2019
Oguntoye, T. O. & Fatoki, O. A.
Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria
Forests and tree contribute to food and nutritional security in myriad ways. Directly, trees provide a variety of healthy foods including fruits, leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds and edible oils that can diversify diets and address seasonal food and nutritional gaps. Forests are also sources of a wider range of edible plants and fungi, as well as bush meat, fish and insects. Tree-based systems also support the provision of fodder for meat and dairy animals, of “green fertilizer” to support crop production and of wood fuel, crucial in many communities for cooking food. Due to the negative impacts of deforestation and indiscriminate tree felling there is an increasing needs for renewal of our forest reserves, hence the need for tree planting. This study aimed to confirm the perception of tree planting practice , awareness of tree planting laws, the types of tree commonly planted ,purpose of planting such trees, and reason for not planting if any. This study was conducted at Oluyole local government, Ibadan, Oyo state. The study used primary data through a well-structured questionnaire and scheduled interview, One hundred and ten respondents were randomly sampled. The use of frequency count and simple percentage were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that more than two-third (88.2%) of the respondents is aware of tree planting practices while (11.8%) are not aware. The respondent’s occupation shows that 10% are unemployed, 36.3% are professional, and 35.5% are students. On the laws guiding tree planting, 85.5% of the respondents are aware and (14.6%) claimed they are not aware of such laws. TV/Radio (69.1%) was the main source of information on tree planting laws while Research institute represent 13.6% of respondents source of information, Non-governmental organization account for (7.3%) of respondents source of information. Respondents that purchased land for tree planting represent 37.3% while those that used family land and leased land for similar purpose are (26.4% and 36.3%) respectively.
Keywords: Tree, Deforestation, Tree Planting, Agroforestry.
A tree is any tall, woody plant that has a single main stem with branches that extend outward or upward at a distance of 15 or 20 feet (5-7meters) above the ground (Anongo, 2012). The knowledge of how trees contribute to sustainable development is critical to forest renewal and human survival (Kwakwa and Wiafe, 2014; Boon et al., 2009). Without trees, human life would be unsustainable. We need trees to be alive because our lives depend on the availability of air, water and food (Verheij, 2004). Trees utilize carbon (iv) oxide, a greenhouse gas in producing carbohydrates through photosynthesis and contribute to soil fertility that supports a variety of farming systems in practice. Trees provide a wide range of products (timber, fruit, medicine, beverages, fodder and oils) and life-supporting services (carbon sequestration, erosion control, wind shield, soil fertility, shade and beautification). The very soil we need to grow our food crops and the health of our water resources depend on the number of trees we have on the planet, and how healthy they are (Ogunkule and Oladele, 2004). And the livelihood of many people also depended on the cultivation of economic trees to the rural poor and a source of
Traditional agroforestry systems often harbor high biodiversity and can deliver a wide array of tree foods including fruits and leafy vegetables that are both cultivated and are remnants of natural forest. When established in agroforestry systems with shade trees, food diversity and sustainability of tree crop systems increase In Ethiopia, for example, the inclusion of fruit-bearing trees as a shade in coffee plantations provides farmers with access to additional foods, such as mangoes, oranges, bananas and avocados, as well as firewood and timber (Muleta, 2007). a few tropical food trees is widely cultivated globally as commodity crops (e.g., cocoa [Theobroma cacao], coffee [Coffea spp.] and oil palm [Elaeis guineensis]; Dawson et al., 2013; Dawson et al., 2014b) in a variety of production systems, some of which harbor high levels of tree diversity, especially smallholdings.
Tree foods are often rich sources of vitamins, minerals, proteins, fats and other nutrients (FAO, 1992; Ho et al., 2012; Leakey, 1999), although for many traditional and wild species such information is lacking or not reliable. A recent literature review on selected African indigenous fruit trees conducted by (Stadlmayr et al., 2013) for example, clearly showed their high nutritional value, but also highlighted the huge variability and low quality of some data reported in the literature. Edible leaves of wild African trees such as baobab (Adansonia digitata) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica) are high in calcium and are sources of protein and iron (Kehlenbeck and Jamnadas, 2014). Fruits from trees such as mango (Mangifera indica, native to Asia, but widely introduced through the tropics) are high in provitamin A, but there is a huge variability of almost 12-fold among different cultivars, as indicated by the colour of the fruit pulp (Shaheen et al., 2013). A child’s daily requirement for vitamin A can thus be met by around 25 g of a deep orange-fleshed mango variety, while 300 g of a yellow-fleshed variety would be required. As another example, the iron contents of dried seeds of the African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) and raw cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) are comparable with, or even higher than, that of chicken meat (FAO, 2012), although absorption of non-haem iron from plant sources is lower than from animal sources. Iron absorption is enhanced by the intake of vitamin C, which is found in high amounts in many tree fruits (WHO/FAO, 2004). Consumption of only 10 to 20 g of baobab fruit pulp (or a glass of its juice), for example, covers a child’s daily vitamin C requirement. Increasing knowledge on the biochemical components of indigenous tree species that are not widely used in agriculture internationally remains an important area of research (Slavin and Lloyd, 2012; WHO/FAO, 2004).
Adetola O.O et al 2019 cited that Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation is the singular most important reason that we are experiencing ecological imbalances and contribute immensely to climate change. Global deforestation over the last two decades has resulted in the loss of million hectares of forests. Rising population has led to a decrease in open spaces and green belts in general. This is majorly due to the indiscriminate felling of trees. Therefore, we must replace the trees and forests previously decimated before it is too late. According to Professor Bruce Nelson of the University of Southern California, ‘People who will not sustain trees will soon live in a world which cannot sustain people’ (Oloyede 2008).
An effort has been gathered globally to promote and encourage governments to support tree planting and many developing countries have encouraged tree planting programs. In Nigeria, the Federal and State governments have launched tree planting and afforestation programmes aimed at reversing the trend with several free tree seedlings giving to farms and people to aid afforestation. Despite these efforts, deforestation and desert encroachment remains this is obvious from the current trends of climate change experienced in all parts of the country.
This study critically investigates the determinants of tree planting, through the types of tree planted, the perception of planting trees, awareness level of the benefits of tree planting and Land acquisition for the purpose of tree planting. It is expected that the report of this investigation will provide policy makers with the required information for better advocacy in support of tree planting for a healthy environment.
Study Area/ Data Collection. Oluyole is a Local Government area in Oyo state, South West Nigeria. It was established in 1976 and occupies a land mass of 4000 square kilometer with a population of 202,725 (Census 2006).The study population are residents of Oluyole Local government area of Oyo state. A multistage sampling technique was adopted, 5 village districts which include Odo-ona, Busogboro, Mamu, Alabata and Onipe were randomly selected. . Questionnaire was randomly administered to110 residents. Frequency and simple percentage method of data analysis was used to examine the test variables and the generated results.
In the present study table 1 show that (40.9%) which represents age 31-40 years of respondents are the majority while (23.8%) are aged between21-31 years old, 51years and above represents (7.3%) of the respondents. Also (79.1%) are single while (20.9%) are married, of the respondents (82.7%) are male and (17.3%) are female. Furthermore, (36.4%) of the respondents had non –formal education, (35.6%) had primary education and (28.2%) had secondary education. Majority of the respondents (64.6%) are Christians while (33.6%) are Muslims while (1.8%) are traditional worshippers. Unemployed respondents are (10%), (35.5%) are students, (10.7%) are traders and (36.3%) are professionals.
Table 1: Respondents Socio-Demographic Characteristic
Table 2 revealed the levels of respondent’s familiarity with laws on tree planting, (85.5%) of the respondents are aware of tree planting laws while insignificant fractions of the respondents (14.6%) are not aware. On how they got their information, majority of the respondents (69.1%) receive their information through TV/Radio station,(10%) through Newspaper, (13.6%) Research institution and (7.3%) through NGO. Of the respondents (88.2%) are aware of tree planting while (11.8%) are not aware.
Table 2: Respondents Tree Planting Awareness
Table 3 shows the perception of respondents towards tree planting .This study revealed that over (80%) of the respondents strongly agree that tree planting have future advantage while less than (20%) disagree strongly. Tree planting is the sole responsibility of the government was the believe of over (30%) while over (50%) are not in support of this perception. Land owners alone should plant trees is popularly agreed by over (70%) while less than (20%) disagree. Over (50%) of the respondents strongly disagree that tree planting waste time, over (40%) strongly disagree however, more than (10%) are indifferent.
Table 3: Respondents Perception towards tree planting
Tree planting is cardinal to environmental protection against climate change, deforestation, flooding and the release of greenhouse gases. The present study shows that 88.2% are aware of tree planting, however; despite that awareness, over 50% still believe that government alone should plant trees. This partly could be attributed to the unavailability of land and the high cost of obtaining land. As revealed by this study out of 100% only 26.4% of our respondents used family land for tree planting, while only 37.3% used purchased land for a similar purpose. This low participation in tree planting is in agreement with the works of Ogunkunle and Oladele (2004).
This study also discovered that majority of the respondents obtained their information through mass media about tree planting, this agrees to the works of (Olusegun Afolabi et al.,2015) and in contrast to the works of Udofia, 2010 and Kobbail, 2012 where indigenous knowledge was cited as the main source of knowledge. This contrast could be explained by the fact that a majority of our respondents, being professionals, are more likely exposed to mass media as means of obtaining information. Furthermore, majority of the respondents are Christians followed by Islam, while the traditional worshippers represent an insignificant quota of the respondent’s religion in respect of tree planting. This further supports the folklore belief that traditional worshippers make use of trees for various purposes without planting it back hence, surporting deforestation activities.
Most people a source of information is through the media-TV/Radio station and majority are aware of tree planting through this source, Many agree that tree planting have a future advantage and that government alone should not be left with the responsibility of planting trees. The major determinants of tree planting are ownership of land and that due to its economic advantages it does not waste time. Also, tree planting can be encouraged if land is more available to the people.