International Journal of Informatics, Technology & Computers
ISSN: 2317-3793, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 150 – 160
Date: 24 October 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut
Islamic Azad University
Isfahan Branch, Iran
The present study aimed to a) investigate effect of video captioning on Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ vocabulary acquisition, b) To investigate the effect instruction through subtitled movies on Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ vocabulary acquisition, and c) compare the effects of video captioning versus subtitled videos on intermediate Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary acquisition. To achieve these aims, 60 Iranian EFL learners who were learning English in a language institute in Isfahan participated in the study. The participants were divided into two equal groups. Each group consisted of 30 EFL learners. The first group was taught via video captioning while the second group was taught by means of subtitled videos. The participants’ level of proficiency was assessed via Oxford Placement Test (OPT). In this study, the Word Up Assessment Test Level Turquoise was used by the researcher. The test consisted of 25 multiple-choice which was given to the participants before the treatment as the pretest and after the treatment as the posttest. The pretest was given to the participants before the treatment. The first group was taught via Connect with English and the second group was taught by means of Family Album USA. In each session, one or two episodes of the movies were used in the class. After completing the treatment, the posttest was given to the participants. The results indicated that video captions had a significant effect on the participants’ vocabulary knowledge. Moreover, subtitled videos had a significant effect on the participants’ vocabulary knowledge. Furthermore, there was not a significant difference between the effects of captions and subtitles on the participants’ vocabulary knowledge. Results of the study offer implications for teaching vocabulary and use of movies in EFL classrooms.
Keywords: Caption, Subtitles, Video, Vocabulary, Vocabulary Learning.
Videos have long been used in class by teachers of different fields and at all levels of schooling (see for example Frazier and Boehm (2012) for geography, Mathews, Fornaciari, and Rubens (2012) for management, and Efthimiou and Llewellyn (2004) for science) and are a type of learning material that is greatly valued by learners (Kluzer, Ferrari, & Centeno, 2011). Audiovisual material (with or without subtitles) has also been employed in content-based teaching in a foreign language (see for example Kumar and Scarola (2006) and Mahlasela (2012). It is clear that L2 learners have problems with decoding native speech when exposed to real input. Consequently, providing captions assistances could help learners to connect the written words to their actual speech.
In summary, video captioning is an influential educational tool that can simplify vocabulary learning and listening comprehension. Multimedia technology has improved the video mode by adding addition navigational tools that learners can use to rewind, pause, replay, and segment video clips. The findings of the study by Hsu, Hwang, Chang, and Chang (2013) indicated that captioning supports vocabulary development and listening comprehension.
Vocabulary learning develops a fundamental and an important part of English language learning (Cameron, 2003). Without having suitable vocabulary knowledge, it is hard to study grammar, speaking, listening, writing, and other language skills. For the development of English language proficiency, vocabulary knowledge is indispensable and essential. Many experts in the field of TEFL believe that the best way of learning vocabulary is incidental learning (Ahmad, 2012; Day, Omura, & Hiramatsu, 1991; Hulstijn, 2001; Paribakht & Wesche, 1999; Shi, 2008; Waring & Nation, 2004; Webb, 2008; Yoshii & Flaitz, 2002; Zhang, 2000).
In English classes, nearly most of the students have problems with learning and memorizing different types of vocabulary and idioms. Even students with considerable amount of English knowledge sometimes do weakly in different types of lexicon tests. In Iran, learning English (as foreign language) is just limited to the classroom activities, so there is no opportunity to learn English in the society and communication with other people. Furthermore, Iranian students start learning English at their secondary school. Using different techniques and strategies have been examined for effective vocabulary teaching, including definitions, demonstration, translation, and other traditional and more recent techniques …….
2. Literature Review
2.1 Vocabulary and Vocabulary Learning
Vocabulary is commonly defined as a system of words with of their meaning explanations. A word is implied as a series of characteristics in which there is the mixture of its meaning, association, collocation, grammatical behavior, written form (spelling) (Schmitt, 2000). According to Richards and Schmidt (2010), vocabulary is defined as a set of lexemes, including single words, compound words and idioms.
The term vocabulary is challenging to be defined and there has not been an undivided agreement among linguists on defining it up until now. According to Stahl (2005, p. 94), “yet up till now, there has been no definition that describes fully the characteristics of vocabulary.” Other scholars have provided different definitions of vocabulary. For instance, Williamson (2014) defined vocabulary as a set of words a particular person …….