Published on International Journal of Health, Nursing, & Medicine
Publication Date: April 13, 2019
Ezomoh. O. O., Peter C., Ifada. M. & Ebianga. E.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Niger Delta University
Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, Bayelsa State
In this study, the estimation of Vitamins in Mormyrops deliciosus from Amassoma, Otuokpoti, Tombia and Swali River in Bayelsa State was investigated. Freshly Mormyrops deliciosus, obtained from Bayelsa water bodies was sorted and identified. The Vitamin was extracted from the various fishes using High Performance Lipid Chromatography (HPLC). There was a significant (p<0.05) difference in the vitamin content of vitamin B3, B6, B1, B2, E, B9 and K. Meanwhile for vitamin C has a significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for Mormyrops deliciosus obtained from Amassoma and Otuokpoti river while a non-significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for Swali and Tombia river. Also, for vitamin A, a significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for Swali and Otuokpoti river whereas a non-significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for Amassoma.
Keywords: Vitamins, Mormyrops deliciosus, Bayelsa water, Observed, Amassomma, Otuokpoti, Tombia and Swali River.
Fish is a main part of the human diet, a fact that has become more relevant in developing countries, whose dietary patterns reveal a large dependency on staple foods, and fish is the main source, accounting about 19.6% of animal protein consumption (Adeyeye, et al., 2014). Fish is of high nutritional value due to its protein content, excellent quality of lipids (omega 3 and 6 series) and low series of total fat, saturated fats and cholesterol (Magobe, et al., 2015).
Vitamins are organic chemical compound which are found in tiny amounts in natural foodstuffs, these vitamins are needed and/or required by an organism as a vital nutrient to sustain life because they play an important role in normal metabolism process, growth and vitality. Usually we received vitamins either from our diet which consider as the major source for them, or from vitamins supplements. Vitamins generally classified into two main broad categories which are, water soluble vitamins (Vit B12, Vit C, folic acid, niacin Vit B3, Vit B1 and Vit B2) and fat soluble vitamins (Vit K, Vit E, Vit D and Vit A). Our body needs a minute amount of vitamins and minerals each day to remain healthy, function properly and prevent future health problem i.e., insufficiency of vitamins in the diet leads to deficiency diseases and many other serious in the future. Many of the recent studies proved that the incidence of cancer, diabetes, obesity and heart diseases in older people is directly related to insufficient supplement of nutrition during childhood and adulthood. The point of sufficient supplement of nutrition i.e., vitamins can only be reach through receiving a balanced diet every day. Besides that the importance of receiving a balanced diet each day came from that our bodies do not have the ability to synthesize or create vitamins. A vitamin is an organic molecules (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient that an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet. Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second. Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some forms of vitamin A function as regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation. The B complex vitamins function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for them. Vitamin D has a hormone-like function as a regulator of mineral metabolism for bones and other organs. Vitamins C and E function as antioxidants. (Carr AC, et al.,1999) Both deficient and excess intake of a vitamin can potentially cause clinically significant illness; although excess intake of water-soluble vitamins is less likely to do so. Vitamins generally classified into two main broad categories which are, water soluble vitamins (Vit B12, Vit C, folic acid, niacin Vit B3, Vit B1 and Vit B2) and fat soluble vitamins (Vit K, Vit E, Vit D and Vit A).
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
About 0.1g of the sample and 0.05g ascorbic acid (as antioxidant) were weighed into 16x126mm test tube and 5ml of reagent alcohol (made by mixing 90.2% ethanol, 4.9% methanol, and 4.9% isopropanol and, 0.5ml of 80% KOH (w/v) were added and the tube vortexed for 30 seconds.
The test tube was then flushed with N2, capped, and incubated for 30min in a water bath (70ºC) with periodic vortexing. The tube was then placed in an ice bath for 5 min. Deionized water (3ml) and 5ml of hexane were added to the test tube, vortexed for 30 sec, and then centrifuged at 1000xg for 10 min. The upper hexane layer was transferred to another test tube and the residue re-extracted two more times, each with 5ml hexane. The pooled extract was concentrated to 1ml by evaporation (in a water bath) under N2 gas flow. The concentrated extract was analyzed for FSV contents under standard conditions in a HP Gas chromatograph (Model 5890) powered with HP Chem Station Rev. A09.01 (1206) Software calibrated with selected standards. From the chromatograms of the extract and mixture of standards (VIT-FSK-R2-SET, Accu Standard, USA), the vitamin contents of the sample were identified and quantified by an enhanced integrator which gave the result in mg/100g sample.
The vitamins content (mg/100g) in Mormyrops deliciosus obtained from Amassoma, Swali, Tombia and Otuokpoti Rivers in Bayelsa State.
Results indicate that the water soluble and fat soluble vitamins was found in Mormyrops deliciosus obtained from the different rivers. Also, a significant (p<0.05) difference in the vitamin content of vitamin B3, B6, B1, B2, E, B9 and K. Meanwhile for vitamin C a significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for mormyrops deliciosus obtained from Amassoma and Otuokpoti river while a non-significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for Swali and Tombia river. Also, for vitamin A, a significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for Swali and Otuokpoti river whereas a non-significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for Amassoma and Tombia river. For vitamin D, a significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for Mormyrops deliciosus obtained from Amassoma and Tombia river whereas a non-significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for Swali and Otuokpoti rivers. Lastly, for vitamin B12, a significant (p<0.05) difference was observed for Tombia and Otuokpoti river whereas a non-significant (p<0.05) difference was observed form Amassoma and Swali river. Also observed was that Mormyrops deliciosus obtained from Otuokpoti river more vitamin content than those obtained from the other three rivers.
From the results obtained from this study; a significant difference in some of the vitamins was observed whereas a non-significant difference was observed in others. Also, results also revealed that Mormyrops deliciosus obtained from otuokpoti river is more nutritive in terms of vitamin content than those obtained from Swali, Amassoma and Tombia rivers. This study was the first of its kind.
Also changes in nutritive values of fishes had been reported to change due geographical distribution and location of the rivers. Also, variation changes in the four different rivers may be caused by the climatic change in the month (Ayeloja et al., 2013).
In conclusion, this study revealed the importance of Mormyrops deliciosus as a good nutritive source of vitamins. On the other hand the information will be useful to consumers in choosing fish based on their nutritional content rather than taste, appearance and other physical factors.