Assessment of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

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Published on International Journal of Health, Nursing, & Medicine
ISSN: 2193-3715, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 13 – 20
Publication Date: 10 February 2019

Sisay Yami Gudeta
Certified Senior Environment Consultant
Hiwot Environment Consultancy Firm
Babile Town, East Hararghe Zone, Oromia Region
Ethiopia

Journal Full Text PDF: Assessment of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (Case in Ancient Jugal and Semi-Urban Districts of Harar City).

Abstract
Introduction: Poor water supply, sanitation and hygiene conditions are the major causes of preventable illness and deaths in developing countries. 842 000 deaths in developing countries were caused by unimproved water, sanitation and hygiene(WASH).This study aimed to assess water, sanitation and hygiene status in ancient Jugal and Semi-urban districts of Harar City, East Ethiopia. Methods: Harar City is located at a distance of 525 km from Addis Ababa in Eastern Ethiopia. Cross sectional study design was used and data collection. Simple random sampling is used and proportionate sample was allocated for each group (422),making the total sample size of 844.Training was provided for data collectors and supervisors while ethical issues were addressed properly. Data collection instrument was standardized and pretested in the field. Data entry, processing and analysis was done with SPSS 20th edition. Results: Ancient Jugal had coverage of 71.8%, 67.8%, 53.3% and 31.3% for proper solid waste disposal, improved water supply, improved latrine and WASH respectively while 14.5%,53.6%,42.4% and 7.3% households in Semi-urban districts used proper solid waste disposal, improved water supply, improved latrine and WASH respectively. The odds of having access to improved water supply (OR=1.84,95% CI:1.379-2.413), proper solid waste disposal (OR = 14.894,95% CI:10.558-21.009), improved latrine (OR = 1.55,95% CI:1.182-2.035) and WASH (OR = 5.741,95% CI: 3.774-8.734) were high in ancient Jugal compared to Semi-urban districts. Conclusion: Water, sanitation and hygiene(WASH) showed statistically significance difference between ancient Jugal and Semi-urban districts of Harar City. There were huge disparity between ancient Jugal and Semi-urban districts in favor of the former in all component of WASH.

Keywords: Improved Water Supply, Improved Latrine, Proper Solid Waste Disposal, Jugal, Semi-Urban Districts.

1. Introduction
Poor water supply, sanitation and hygiene are the major causes of preventable illness and deaths in developing countries[1].842 000 deaths in developing countries were caused by unimproved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) [2]. Out of this, 502 000 deaths can be attributed to unimproved water supply and 280 000 deaths resulted from unimproved sanitation[2].Worldwide, 64.2 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were attributed to unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene practices, of which the majority are in developing countries. Under five children accounted for 88% of the DALYs in low income countries while Sub-Saharan Africa took 46% of global DALYs due to unsafe water and poor sanitation[1].
Diarrhea is the second leading causes of death in under five children worldwide[3]. Every year, about two million people die due to diarrheal diseases. Among them, most of the deaths occur in children under the age of five years old[4]. 361 000 deaths of under five children could be prevented in developing countries[5]. According to 2016 Ethiopia demography and health survey (EDHS) report, under five children acute diarrhea prevalence in Ethiopia and Harari Regional State was 12% and 10.8% respectively[6].
Improper solid waste disposal has been contaminating groundwater and surface water through leachate and air pollution through unregulated burning [7].Inadequate and unsafe disposal was evident in widespread litter, contaminated water, high incidence of respiratory and communicable diseases[7]. Improper solid waste management poses a serious health threat whereas burning garbage and scavenging at disposal sites were significantly associated with an increased chance of getting sick across all regions in Ethiopia[8,9]. 89% and 56% of the world population had access to improved water supply and piped water supply on premises respectively while 58% of the developing countries population had access to an improved sanitation facility in 2012[2]. According to Unicef, less than half the rural population of developing countries have access to improved sanitation[10]. Households in rural areas were more likely to use unimproved water supply and unimproved sanitation than urban households[10].
WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program(JMP) indicated 56% and 37% of urban Ethiopian population had access to piped water supply on premises and other improved water supply in 2014[11].However; growth and transformation plan (GTP II) put improved water supply coverage for urban Ethiopia at 84% in the same period[12].According to JMP report 27%,40%,27% and 6% of Ethiopian population used improved sanitation facility, shared, unimproved sanitation facility and open defecation in 2014 respectively [11].The recent Ethiopia demography and health survey (EDHS) findings showed that 97% and 57% of urban and rural households had access to an improved water supply respectively in 2016. Meanwhile; 77% and 6% of urban and rural households had piped water supply on premises respectively in 2016[6].On the other hand,16% and 4% of urban and rural Ethiopian population had access to improved sanitation facilities while still 7% and 39% of urban and rural population practice open defecation respectively in 2016[6].
Provision of safe water supply close to households is essential to prevent WASH related diseases and facilitate hygiene by providing more water for different purposes [10]. Evidence suggested that water, sanitation and hygiene investment bring about improvement of health, well being and development with economic value of returns greatly exceeding initial costs. For every $1 invested in water and sanitation, an average of at least $4 is returned in increased productivity [13]. However, the uncontrolled growth of population is always putting strain on the existing WASH facilities[10]. Though few studies concerning urban versus rural WASH condition was done in developing countries, assessment of WASH in ancient and semi urban districts was not done so far. Thus; this study aimed to assess water, sanitation and hygiene in ancient Jugal and Semi-urban districts of Harar City, East Ethiopia.

2. Methods
2.1 Study area and period
Harar is the capital City of Harari National Regional State, which is located at 525 km in East Ethiopia. Its geographical coordinates are 9020 N and 42010 E. The City has six urban and three rural Woreda. The urban kebeles consists of Semi- urban districts and ancient Jugal which is historical part of the City with seven kebele administration. According to Harari statistical Abstract report, population of Harar City was 123294 (54.2%) of the Regional population in 2016[14]. The study area was ancient Jugal and Semi-urban districts of Shenkor, specifically beyond Shenkor river and Hakim woreda, specifically Hakim Gara.