Evaluation of Online Shop Website Quality Using WebQual 4.0 Method and Its Effect on User Satisfaction

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Published on International Journal of Informatics, Technology & Computers
Publication Date: June 21, 2019

Ryan Adi Putra & Wahyu Kusuma Raharja
Master of Information Systems Management Departement
Gunadarma University, Indonesia

Journal Full Text PDF: Evaluation of Online Shop Website Quality Using WebQual 4.0 Method and Its Effect on User Satisfaction.

Abstract
The development of internet technology has had a positive impact on Indonesia, especially the growth of e-commerce, especially the buying and selling forum. Many e-commerce companies in Indonesia are competing to get satisfaction from their users, one way is to maintain the quality of the company’s website. This study aims to evaluate the quality of Tokopedia website to user satisfaction by using WebQual 4.0. Populations and samples are taken based on users or consumers who use the Tokopedia website or who have already made transactions that work as office employees and are located in Jakarta. Tests carried out are hypothesis testing and multiple linear regression analysis by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 24.0 version. Based on the questionnaire obtained from 124 respondents, the overall quality of the Tokopedia website scored 74.1% which indicates the quality of the website is good according to the users. The quality of the Tokopedia website is based on the R² value (Adjusted R Square) contributing 67.3% to user satisfaction. Partially, the variable quality of use does not affect user satisfaction, the information quality variable significantly influences user satisfaction, the variable quality of service interaction significantly influences user satisfaction. Simultaneously, the quality of usability, the quality of information and the quality of service interactions affect user satisfaction.

Keywords: Ecommerce, User Satisfaction, Multiple Linear Regression, Website, WebQual

1. INTRODUCTION
Information technology is a part of human life today. In various fields, technology plays an important role to support every activity of human life and is able to facilitate every need for everyday human life. One example of current technological progress is the presence of the internet. The internet has become an integral part of human life in the 21st century. The progress of internet technology has become a symbol of how to communicate freely, without being limited by space, distance and time. Supported by various advantages and advantages of the internet, among others, the cost of internet connection is relatively affordable and the availability of unlimited information, the internet is now one of the main needs of the community in meeting all information-related needs.
Increasing internet users have an influence on the growth of e-commerce in Indonesia, especially the buying and selling forum. Many business opportunities appear in several buying and selling forums in Indonesia. This growth is supported by data from Google and Temasek research entitled “e-Conomy SEA 2018” which states that the value of e-commerce transactions in 2018 reached 176.9 trillion [1].
E-commerce is a marketing media that uses a website to transact or facilitate an online product sale or an entire electronic media that provides information transactions between organizations and other external stakeholders [2]. Meanwhile internet media, especially e-commerce, prospective customers can search for information about a product that they need in real time so that it can reduce the effort and costs incurred to find product information.
In Indonesia there are many e-commerce sites that are developing, currently the most prominent websites in the e-commerce category in Indonesia are Lazada.com, Blibli.com, JD.ID, Shopee.co.id, Bukalapak.com, and Tokopedia.com. According to iPrice quarterly data in 2018, the mostly month website visitors in 2018 for e-commerce are Tokopedia in the first rank of 168 million visitors, Bukalapak is ranked second with 116 million visitors, Shopee is ranked third with 67.7 million visitors, Lazada is ranked fourth with 58.3 visitors, Blibli was ranked fifth with 43.1 million visitors and there were still many other e-commerce [3]

Table 1. E-commerce Visitor Ranking in Indonesia in 2018 [3]

In the increasingly fierce competition, of course Tokopedia, whose monthly website visitor ranks the highest number in iPrice quarter 4 2018, must be able to maintain and always improve the quality of the company, especially the quality of its website. Considering the website is the main media of Tokopedia, because all trading activities are carried out on the website. Therefore, companies must be able to present a professional and quality website.
Difficulty in assessing quality (product performance risk) is the most frequently cited risk by internet users as an excuse not to make purchases online [4]. And to find out the user satisfaction of a website there is a method that can be used to measure the quality of a website, namely the WebQual method. There are several criteria that can be used to measure the quality of a website based on the WebQual method, namely the quality of usability, information quality and quality of interaction services that can be known from website users.
Many previous studies related to the WebQual method are among others The Impact of Quality Websites on Online Purchase Intention of Organic Food in Malaysia: A WebQual Model Approach [5], Using WebQual 4.0 In The Evaluation of Russian B2C Cosmetic Web Sites [6], Blibli.com E-commerce Website Quality Evaluation Using WebQual 4.0 Method Against Online Purchasing Decisions [7], Bukalapak.com Service Quality Measurement Against Consumer Satisfaction with 4.0 WebQual Method [8], Measuring Customer Satisfaction toward Webalization and Localization Website Importance Performance Analysis (Case Study on AliexPress Site in Indonesia) [9].
E-commerce or also called electronic commerce is an activity related to the purchase, sale and marketing of goods or services by utilizing electronic systems such as the internet or computer networks [10]. E-commerce or short for electronic commerce, is a business transaction that occurs in electronic networks, such as the internet. Anyone who can access computers, have a connection to the internet, and have a way to pay for goods or services they buy, can participate in e-commerce [11].
User satisfaction is the feeling of being happy or disappointed someone as a result of a comparison between achievement or product or service that is rarely felt and expected [12]. The definition of satisfaction is the response or response of users regarding fulfillment of needs [13].
Multiple linear regression is one of the techniques in statistics to determine the relationship between two or more variables, in a linear regression analysis a linear model will be determined between one or more independent variables on one or more response variables [14]. While multiple linear regression analysis is one of the analysis techniques that are often used in processing multivariable data. Multiple linear regression analysis is used when the researcher intends to predict the condition (rise and fall) of the criterion variable, if two or more predictor variables are manipulated [15].
Understanding the website is the whole web pages that are contained from a domain that contains information [16]. Website or site can be interpreted as a collection of pages that are used to display information, motion pictures, sounds and or a combination of all of them both static and dynamic that form a series of interrelated buildings where each one is linked to a link -link [17].
WebQual 4.0 is the result of analysis on WebQual 3.0 which leads to the identification of three dimensions of e-commerce website quality, namely: usability, information quality and service interaction quality. usability related to website design such as appearance, ease of use, navigation and also the appearance presented on the website [18]
So this study will evaluate the quality of the Tokopedia website using the WebQual 4.0 method and to determine its effect on user satisfaction.

2 CONCEPTUAL MODEL AND HYPOTHESIS
The development of a conceptual model that can be described from this study is shown in Picture 1

Picture 1. Conceptual Model

The hypothesis that will be proposed from the conceptual model in Figure 1
H1: Usability quality has a positive relationship with user satisfaction
H2: Information quality has a positive relationship with user satisfaction
H3: Service interaction quality has a positive relationship with user satisfaction
H4: Usability quality, quality of information, service interaction quality has a positive relationship with user satisfaction

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
To find out the quality of Tokopedia e-commerce web, it takes primary data obtained from the results of questionnaires to office employees in Jakarta who are active as users or who have already made transactions through the Tokopedia website. Questionnaires in the form of questions whose answers use a Likert scale, measurements are between 1-4.
Description of value:
1. Strongly Disagree
2. Less Agree
3. Agree
4. Strongly Agree
The following are the questions that will be used in the questionnaire:

Table 2. Tokopedia Website Questionnaire Design

3. RESULTS
3.1 The Result of the Quesioner
After the questionnaire was obtained, there were 124 respondents who filled out the questionnaire with varied assessments. The criteria taken from respondents’ data are taken, namely the age of the respondent, the sex of the respondent and the monthly expenditure of the respondents to shop online
Based on age data taken from the questionnaire, respondents’ data that has been collected shows that the age of respondents between 20 years to 30 years as many as 38.7% or a number of 48 respondents, ages 31 years to age 40 as many as 26.6% or a number of 33 respondents, 41 years old to 50 years old, 23.4% or 29 respondents, 51 years old to 64 years old there were 9.7% or 12 respondents, and over 65 years old there were 1.6% or as many as 2 respondents.
Based on sex data taken from the questionnaire, respondents’ data that has been collected shows that female sex is more dominant, namely as much as 56.5% or a number of 70 respondents while male sex is only 43.5% or a total of 54 respondents.
Based on monthly expenditure data for online shopping taken from the questionnaire, respondents’ data that has been collected shows that expenditures that are less than Rp. 200,000 as much as 27.4% or a total of 34 respondents, spending between Rp. 200,001 to Rp. 500,000, 31.5% or a number 39 respondents, spending between Rp. 500,001 and Rp. 1,000,000, 26.6% or 33 respondents, and expenditures above Rp. 1,000,000, 14.5% or 18 respondents.

3.2 Descriptive Analysis
Based on the results of the descriptive analysis, the responses of respondents regarding the quality of the Tokopedia website based on the WebQual 4.0 method are as follows:
1. Overall usability quality variables are in the good category. Where this variable gets a total percentage score of 75.9%. This variable score is the biggest score between the dependent variable and the other two independent variables. The aspect that has the highest score is the operation of the easy-to-understand Tokopedia website and the lowest score aspect
2. Overall information quality variables are in the good category. Where this variable gets a total percentage score of 74.6%. The aspect that has the highest score is that the information provided by the Tokopedia website is always up to date and the aspects with the lowest score are the information provided by the Tokopedia website which is considered to be irrelevant or inaccurate in order to get the lowest score.
3. The variable quality of service interaction as a whole is in the good category. Where this variable gets a total percentage score of 73.7%. The aspect that has the highest score is about the convenience provided by the Tokopedia website to communicate with the seller and the lowest score aspect is that the goods sent by the seller to the buyer are still not as promised.
4. Variable user satisfaction as a whole is in a good category. Where this variable gets a total percentage score of 72.4%. This variable score is the smallest score between the dependent variable and the other two independent variables. The aspect that has the highest score is about the feeling of users who are satisfied using Tokopedia website in fulfilling their needs and aspects with the lowest score is about the overall use of the Tokopedia website component which is sometimes seen as an error
Respondents regarding the quality of the Tokopedia website were based on the WebQual 4.0 method which included quality of use, quality of information and quality of service interactions, as a whole included in the good category. From 22 statements for independent variables, respondents’ assessment of the quality of Tokopedia website obtained an average total score score of 74.1% which indicates that the quality of the Tokopedia website as a whole in the eyes of users and customers is good.

3.3 Multiple Linear Regression Analysis
In this study, multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the effect of WebQual 4.0 dimensions which included usability quality, information quality and service interaction quality on user satisfaction on the Tokopedia website. The results of multiple linear regression tests will be explained as follows
From the output in table 3 it can be seen that the independent variables entered into the model are the Usability quality, Information quality, Service interaction quality of the service and the dependent variable is User Satisfaction. There are no variables removed. While the regression method uses Enter.
At the output of the model summary table there is Adjusted R Square, Adjusted R Square is usually used to measure the contribution of influence if the regression uses more than two independent variables. The value obtained is 0.673 or 67.3%. This means that this value shows the contribution of the influence of the independent variable to the dependent variable by 67.3%. While the remaining 32.7% is influenced by other factors not observed in this study.
By looking at table 5 Output Regression Coefficients, multiple linear regression equations can be arranged as follows:
Y = 1.981 + 0.118 X1 + 0.293 X2 + 0.872 X3
The meaning of the above equation is as follows:
1. The value of a constant (a) is 1.981; It means that the value of user satisfaction is 1.981 if there is no addition in the value of usability quality (X1 = 0), there is no addition in the value of information quality (X2 = 0) and there is no added value in the quality of service interaction (X3 = 0)
2. Variable usability quality (X1) has a regression coefficient of 0.118. This means that every increase in the value of usability quality (X1) of 1 point will increase user satisfaction (Y) by 0.118 and vice versa, every decrease in usability quality (X1) of 1 point will reduce user satisfaction (Y) by 0.118 assuming other variables are worth .
3. Variable information quality (X2) has a regression coefficient of 0.293. This means that each increase in the value of information quality (X2) by 1 point will increase user satisfaction (Y) by 0.293 and vice versa, any decrease in information quality (X2) of 1 point will reduce user satisfaction (Y) by 0.293 assuming other variables are worth constant .
4. Variable service interaction quality (X3) has a regression coefficient of 0.873. This means that every increase in the value of service interaction quality (X3) of 1 point will increase user satisfaction (Y) by 0.873 and vice versa, any decrease in service interaction quality (X3) of 1 point will reduce user satisfaction (Y) by 0.873 assuming other variables are worth permanent.

Partial hypothesis test results can be seen in table 5:
1. Quality of Use for User Satisfaction
T count (1,389) ≤ T Table (1,980) and significance 0.167 > 0.05 then H0 is accepted. So that it can be concluded that partially the variable quality of use does not affect user satisfaction.
2. Quality of Information on User Satisfaction
T count (2,399) > T Table (1,980) and significance 0.018 < 0.05 then H0 is rejected. So that it can be concluded that partially the information quality variable (X2) has a significant effect on user satisfaction (Y).
3. Quality of Service Interaction with User Satisfaction
T count (8,918) ≤ T Table (1,980) and significance 0,000 < 0,05, H0 is rejected. So it can be concluded that partially the variable quality of service interaction has a significant effect on user satisfaction.

Table 6. Anova (Uji F)

Simultan hypothesis test results can be seen in table 6:
F count (85,555) > F table (2,680) then H0 is rejected. So the conclusion is the quality of usability, information quality and quality of service interactions together have an effect on user satisfaction.

4. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the results of the study conclusions can be drawn which will be described as follows:
1. Respondents’ assessment of the quality of the Tokopedia website is in a good category with a total score of respondents of 11,755 from the ideal score of 15,882 or a percentage of 74.1%. Respondents’ assessment of user satisfaction with the quality of the Tokopedia website was 72.4% or a score of 3,592 from an ideal score of 4,960. This shows that the satisfaction of Tokopedia website users is included in the good category.
2. Based on the results of research and questionnaires that have been carried out the interaction quality score on the Tokopedia website get the lowest score compared to the score of the quality of use and information quality which is equal to 2,559 or with a percentage of 73.7%.
3. Partially the dimensions of Tokopedia website quality based on WebQual 4.0, namely the quality of use does not affect the satisfaction of Tokopedia website users, while the quality of information and quality of service interaction have a significant effect on satisfaction of Tokopedia website users.
4. Together or simultaneously based on WebQual 4.0 the dimensions of Tokopedia website quality, namely quality of use, information quality and quality of service interaction significantly influence the satisfaction of Tokopedia website users.
5. Based on the results of the research and analysis that has been done the percentage of the influence of the variable quality of interaction, the quality of usability and the quality of information on user satisfaction is 67.3%, while the remaining 32.7% is influenced by other variables not included in this model.
Based on the results of the discussion of the research and conclusions that have been presented previously, the following are some suggestions that are expected to be input and consideration for the company.
1. It is expected that Tokopedia website owners and owners will pay more attention to the overall quality of the website in order to maintain or increase the satisfaction of website users, and pay more attention to the information quality and interaction service quality on the Tokopedia website because it has a significant influence on website user satisfaction.
2. To improve the quality of use on the website, managers and owners of Tokopedia websites can make improvements to the appearance of the website according to the wishes and expectations of users such as implementing a bootstrap framework or the application of HTML 5-based websites to give an attractive impression to users.
3. It is expected that Tokopedia can improve the quality of information on its website. Both information about products and promos or ongoing services. Especially information about details and product descriptions that have been complaints by Tokopedia website users because they are often inappropriate and also get the lowest score in the quality of information.
4. To improve the quality of interaction services, it is expected that Tokopedia must ensure the quality of goods received by the buyers is in accordance with the items ordered. If the items purchased are not suitable, Tokopedia must be a mediator between the seller and the buyer by providing a quick response. This is a complaint of Tokopedia website users and also gets the lowest score in the quality of interaction services.