Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
Publication Date: May, 2019
H. K. M. H. N. Kumarasinghe & A. K. Anjala
Department of Business Management, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka
Journal Full Text PDF: Wellness and Happiness on Job Satisfaction (An Evidence from Apparel Sector in Sri Lanka).
The purpose of this research is examine the impact of welfare facilities on operational level employees’ job satisfaction of apparel sector in Anuradhapura district in Sri Lanka. As the sample 150 number of operational level employees were selected by using stratified simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire used to collect the data from respondents where the questionnaire consists of three parts. Respondents were asked to indicate their agreements or disagreements on five point liker scale as the scaling method. Validity, reliability, descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data by using SPSS 21.0 version. According to the findings there was a positive relationship between medical facilities, canteen facilities, safety facilities, transport facilities and job satisfaction among operational level employees in apparel firms in Anuradhapura district. Further, the adjusted R2 value is 0.256, indicated that 25.6% of the variation of the job satisfaction is explained by welfare facilities. Based on the results of the research it is recommended to enhance medical facilities, canteen facilities and transport facilities to increase employees’ well-being to achieve employees’ job satisfaction in apparel sector. The future researchers have opportunities to examine impact welfare facilities on job satisfaction in various areas and industries.
Keywords: Welfare facilities, Job Satisfaction, Apparel firms, Operational level employees.
Today, in a rapid changing work environment, human resource is important factor in every organization. The success of any organization depends on the practical use of the role of human resources than technology ( Chaubey & Rawat, 2016). Employees play an important role in every organization and employees are backbone of the every organization. No work can be done without employees (Choudhary, 2017). Human resource is one of the most important factors for the organization to achieve its objectives efficiently and effectively. Human resource management in the present day society has gained a prominent place because of human resource management is a specialized functional area of business that attempt to develop programs, policies and activities to promote the job satisfaction of both individual and organizational needs, goals and objectives. Human resource management consist of eighteen functions (Opatha, 2009) where welfare management plays an important role among them. Welfare defines as an indirect reward given to an employee or group of employees as a part of organizational membership (Mathis & Jackson, 2000). In the past, pay wages and salaries for employees was sole responsibility believed by industrialist and employers. With the introduction of the concept of human resource management, factories and employers wanted workers to do more than salaries and pay wages “Employee welfare can be defined providing facilities and comforts to employees of an organization so that will be able to lead better level of living” (Opatha, 2009). If organizations want acquire and maintain employees qualified and efficient employees in an organization should provide welfare facilities to increase employee satisfaction (Madusanka & Perera, 2016). Organizational welfare has a positive impact on organizational performance including happiness, security, motivation and job satisfaction (Khademi, 2014). Strategic reasons for offering benefits include attracting and retaining employees, improving the company’s image and enhancing job satisfaction” (Armstrong, 1996). Spector (1997) described, job satisfaction was simply as how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like or dislike their job. Increased employee satisfaction can increase loyalty of the employee, reduce employee turnover and absenteeism. Determinates such as pay, work itself, relationships with coworkers, supervision and opportunities for promotions have been found to contribute to job satisfaction (Opkara, 2002). Job satisfaction has a significant influence on employees’ organizational commitment, turnover, absenteeism, tardiness, accidents, and grievances (Rue & Byars, 1989). Dissatisfied workforce damage the organizations financial performance as well as the goodwill of the organization (Spinks, 2004). Employee welfare facilities can show the value of the organization to the employees and stakeholders. Thus, labor welfare can be considered as valuable investment. This will result in a profitable return and employees are more encourage to working in the most efficient way (Prabakar, 2013). As one of the major industry, the Sri Lankan apparel industry face absenteeism and labor turnover as major challenges (Thusari, 2008; Weerawansa & Aponsu, 2012). Labor turnover has opposite relationship with job satisfaction (Saifuddin, Hongkrailert & Sermsri, 2008).
Moreover, organizational welfare has a positive impact on organizational performance including happiness, security, motivation and job satisfaction (Khademi, 2014). Employees’ dissatisfaction heavily influence to the organizations. Welfare facilities plays important role in employee satisfaction and it results in improved quality of work life (Sabarirajan, Meharajan , & Arun , 2010). Most of organizations use welfare facilities to satisfy the employees. Thus, this study intended to examine the relationship between employee welfare facilities and job satisfaction as there is a gap of existing literature in this field in the Sri Lankan context. Accordingly, the study attempts to answer the research questions as, what is the impact of welfare facilities on the job satisfaction of operation level employees’ of apparel sector in Anuradhapura district in Sri Lanka? Based on the research question the study try to achieve following objectives.
a. To identify the impact of welfare facilities (medical facilities, canteen facilities, safety facilities and transport facilities) on operational level employees’ job satisfaction, apparel sector in Anuradhapura district.
b. To identify the level of welfare facilities in apparel sector in Anuradhapura district.
c. To provide suitable recommendations to improve job satisfaction via welfare facilities.
2. Conceptual framework and Hypothesis
Based on descriptive literature survey conducted, the researcher developed the conceptual framework for the study as follows. It explained clearly how the researcher can solve the questions of this study. According to the framework, job satisfaction considered as dependent variables and welfare facilities (medical facilities, canteen facilities, safety facilities and transport facilities) considered as independent variables.
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework
The study tested the following hypothesis to identify the relationship of independent variables and dependent variables.
H1 : There is impact of medical facilities on operational level employees’ job satisfaction of apparel sector in Anuradhapura district.
H2 : There is impact of canteen facilities on operational level employees’ job satisfaction of apparel sector in Anuradhapura district.
H3 : There is impact of safety facilities on operational level employees’ job satisfaction of apparel sector in Anuradhapura district.
H4 : There is impact of transport facilities on operational level employees’ job satisfaction of apparel sector in Anuradhapura district.
This study followed deductive approach based on explanatory research design. The study is basic in nature and the study was conducted in non- contrived setting. The unit of analysis was individual level as the study collected data from individual operational level employees in apparel firms. As the sample 120 number of employees were selected using stratified sampling method. The study mainly depended on primary data where the study collected data from respondents by using a structured questionnaires. The first parts of the questionnaires were developed for gather demographical details of the respondents and the second part of this questionnaires were developed to measure the dependent and independent variable in five point Likert Scale by rating the questionnaire with value 5 representing strongly agree and value 1 represent strongly disagree. Data analysis was performed by using Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, correlation and regression analysis by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 21.0 version.
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Sample of the study
Majority (69.2%) of operational level employees were females and most of employees were married (54.2%). High level percentage (61.7%) represented the age category of 21 years to 31 years. Majority of operational level employees (63.3%) worked both day and night shift. Most of operational level employees (64.2%) had work experience below three years.
4.2. Reliability Analysis
Reliability was represented the internal consistency explained how well the items measuring a concept hang together as a set (Sekaran & Bougie,, 2010). In this study, Cronbach’s alpha is used to assess the reliability of the variables.
Table 1: Results of Reliability Analysis
Variable No of items Cronbach’s alpha
Medical Facilities 4 0.702
Canteen Facilities 4 0.632
Safety Facilities 4 0.710
Transport Facilities 4 0.774
Job Satisfaction 10 0.786
When consider the results medical facilities had 0.702 Cronbach’s alpha value, 0.632 for canteen facilities, 0.710 for safety facilities, 0.774 for transport facilities and job satisfaction had 0.786 Cronbach’s alpha value. Because Conbranch’s Alpha values of all variables are greater than 0.6 the variables ensure the internal consistency.
4.3. Descriptive Statistics Analysis
The basic nature of the research variables were explained using descriptive statistical analysis tools such as means and standard deviations. The result of the descriptive statistics are presented in following table.
Table 2: Descriptive Statistics
Variables Mean Std. Deviation
Job Satisfaction 3.9567 .41682
Medical Facilities 4.0250 .45072
Canteen Facilities 3.9708 .41528
Safety Facilities 4.0792 .45947
Transport Facilities 4.0854 .49525
The mean value for medical facilities, canteen facilities, safety facilities, transport facilities and job satisfaction are well above the average (average = 3) on the 1 to 5 scale.
4.4. Correlation Analysis
Measurement of the association between independent and dependent variables through the correlation test conducted. Therefore Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to identify the direction, strength and significance of the relationship of all variables.
Table 3: Correlation Analysis
Variables MF CF SF TF
Medical Facilities (MF) 1
Canteen Facilities (CF) .394** 1
Safety Facilities (SF) .224* .282** 1
Transport Facilities (TF) .362** .280** .113 1
Job Satisfaction .397** .415** .257** .348**
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
According to the results correlation analysis job satisfaction and medical facilities, Medical Facilities, Canteen Facilities and Safety Facilities show positive relationship with job satisfaction. Further, canteen facilities shows the highest influential relationship among them.
4.5. Multiple Regression Analysis
The regression analysis used to identify the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The dependent variable was job satisfaction and independents variables are medical facilities, canteen facilities, safety facilities and transport facilities.
Table 4: ANOVA Table
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Regression 5.808 4 1.452 11.232 .000b
Residual 14.866 115 .129
Total 20.675 119
a. Dependent Variable: Job Satisfaction
As the F value is significant at 0.05 level of significance it can be conclude that the model is strong enough to explain the relationship between four independent variables (medical facilities, canteen facilities, safety facilities and transport facilities) with dependent variable (job satisfaction).
Table 5: Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .530a .281 .256 .35955
According to the table 5, the adjusted R2 value is 0.256, indicates that 25.6% of the variation of the job satisfaction is explained by welfare facilities.
Multiple analyses evaluate the simultaneous effects of all the independent variables and dependent variables. In this study considered medical facilities, canteen facilities, safety facilities and transport facilities as independent variables and job satisfaction considered as dependent variable. The table 4.13 shows the results of the multiple regression analysis.
Table 6: Multiple Regression Analysis
Variable Unstandard Coefficients Stan: Coeff: t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) 1.111 .438 2.537 .013
Medical Facilities .188 .084 .204 2.252 .026
Canteen Facilities .248 .090 .247 2.771 .007
Safety Facilities .109 .075 .120 1.448 .150
Transport Facilities .161 .072 .191 2.224 .028
Dependent Variable: Job Satisfaction
Multiple correlation analysis reveal that only Medical Facilities (ꞵ = .188, p <.05), Canteen Facilities (ꞵ = .248, p <.05) and Transport Facilities (ꞵ = .161, p <.05) have significant effect on job satisfaction where safety facilities found to be insignificant. The findings of the research are aligned with the previous researchers who were focused welfare on job satisfaction (Shrinivas, 2013; Musyoka, 2015; Chaubey & Rawat ,2016; Mendis, 2016).
5. Conclusion and Recommendations
This research was conducted to identify impact of employee welfare facilities on operational level employees’ job satisfaction in apparel sector in Anuradhapura District. The data was collected from 120 operational level employees and according to the findings Medical Facilities, Canteen Facilities and Transport Facilities have significant effect on job satisfaction where safety facilities found to be insignificant. Therefore, researcher recommended to increase medical facilities, provide medical allowance, providing special medical overages may be back-up for employees who faced emergency accidents, provide quality and various foods at fair price, provide refined water facilities, provide convenient and quality vehicles between residents and work place and provide vehicle for the emergency needs of employees and work place requirements. The researcher was found the limitations when conducting the research that can be avoid by future researches. The sample size of the research was 150 but completed 120 were processed for the analysis. The sample size was small in this research. Therefore suggest that should choose the high level sample size for future researches. Anuradhapura District was selected for this research and therefore, suggest the future researchers to select more coverage area for the research. The research focused only on medical facilities, canteen facilities, safety facilities and transport facilities to measure the impact between welfare facilities and job satisfaction. Therefore it is suggested to focus on other welfare facilities when conduct the future researches.
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