Factors Related to the Performance of Women’s Farmer Groups in Utilizing Yardlands

Reader Impact Factor Score
[Total: 2 Average: 5]

Published on International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
Publication Date: February, 2021

Vera Agustina Yanti, Minas Tiurlina, Westri Andayanti & Devy Sofianti
Bina Sarana Informatics University, Jakarta
Staff of the Bangka Belitung Islands Agricultural Technology Assessment Center
Indonesia

Journal Full Text PDF: Factors Related to the Performance of Women’s Farmer Groups in Utilizing Yardlands (Case: Anggrek Farmer Group in Babakan Village, Dramaga District, Bogor).

Abstract
In agricultural development, one of the most important elements that need attention is the group of women farmers. This is because women farmer groups have an important role in the production process of all agricultural commodities, including food crops, horticulture, plantations and livestock. To increase the production of income and family income, the potential of women farming groups really needs to be increased. Empowerment of women as a resource that has great potential and capability needs to be improved as a business opportunity to increase family income. The basic problem faced is that women who live in rural areas have a low mindset, have a lower degree than men, and like to close themselves off. To build the strength that exists in women, it is necessary to have a forum as a place to channel women’s talents and skills. Farmer groups are a means of communication between farmers, farmers and institutions, including those related to the delivery of technology. To face the competition of imported agro-industries, many agro-business businesses from outside countries are importing products into Indonesia, especially plantation agricultural products, thus killing small businesses in agriculture that are less competitive, the need for efforts to improve existing agricultural systems so that the agricultural sector is strong food and people’s welfare is achieved. Therefore, the role of farmer groups needs to be improved so that the group’s performance is skilled and agile. This study aims to analyze the characteristics, motivation, and perceptions of the female farmer group members on the performance of the female orchid farmer group and to analyze the factors related to the performance of the female orchid farmer group members in the use of their yard land. This research was conducted from March to May 2014 at the Orchid Farmers Group in Babakan Village, Dramaga District, Bogor Regency. The population is all members of the Women Farmers Group as many as 30 people using the census research method.

Keywords: Motivation, perceptions, performance of women farmer groups, home gardens.

1. Introduction
Indonesia is a developing country where most of the basic livelihoods of the Indonesian people are as farmers who depend on the agricultural sector. The agricultural sector is a part of the sector that can improve the welfare of the Indonesian people in terms of fulfilling the necessities of life. Indonesia is an agricultural country that has abundant fertility and wealth.
Agricultural revitalization is a sustainable program covering horticultural agricultural sectors, where the agricultural revitalization industry was born due to medicinal plants, agricultural revitalization because agricultural development activities are interrelated with meeting food needs. Abundant harvests and disorganized from the sales side led to a decline in the selling price of the commodity so that agro-industrial development was needed. Farmers’ social problems in agricultural development are a determining factor in the successful adoption of agricultural technology.
Yard utilization activities with various plant commodities have been carried out for a long time, especially in rural areas. Currently, the effort to use homestead land is part of the government’s commitment to achieve food self-sufficiency at the household level by reviving the culture of planting in the home garden. This is done to achieve national food security, must start from household food needs.
Yard land use activities aim to empower members of women farmer groups as the goal of empowerment in Law No. 19 of 2013, that empowerment of women farmers is carried out to promote and develop the mindset and work patterns of women farmers, improve farming, and grow and strengthen farmer institutions so that able to compete and have high competitiveness (Kementan 2013).
Considering the potential for utilization of yard land which is quite good, in fact there are several problems in the sustainability of yard land use. According to Saptana et al. (2011) some of the main problems in the use of homestead land, namely: (a) limited choice of commodity types and seeds, (b) insufficient availability of specific cultivation technology for yard areas, (c) insufficient availability of harvest and post-harvest technology for local food commodities, (d) side-by-side, and (e) only to meet household needs and not yet market oriented. East and Dawes (2009) state that theoretically the use of yards is a panacea for most development problems. However, practically speaking, the use of yard land faces environmental constraints,
In general, yards in Indonesia are grouped into 4 sizes, namely: (1) narrow yards <120 m2; (2) medium yards between 120-140 m2; (3) large yards between 400-100 m2; (4) very large yards> 1000 m2 (Arifin et al. 2009). Based on observations and research results indicate that the area of yards in Bogor Regency is classified as narrow to moderate. The narrow area of the yard is caused by the building of the house, causing the position of the yard in general to be at the front and side of the house
In agricultural development, one of the most important elements that need attention is the group of women farmers. This is because women farmer groups have an important role in the production process of all agricultural commodities, including food crops, horticulture, plantations and livestock. To increase the production of income and family income, the potential of women farming groups really needs to be increased. The empowerment of women as a resource that has great potential and capability needs to be improved as an opportunity to increase family income. The basic problem faced is that women who live in rural areas have a low mindset, have a lower degree than men, and like to close themselves off. To build up the strength that is in women, There is a need for a place to channel women’s talents and skills. The women farmer group is a means of communication between farmers, farmers and institutions, including those related to the delivery of technology.
Further on the social problems of agriculture, also facing the level of competition in the imported agro-industry, many agro-business businesses from outside countries import products into Indonesia, especially plantation agricultural products such as imported fruit and vegetable imports that enter Indonesia, thus killing small businesses in agriculture that unable to compete, the need for efforts to improve the existing agricultural system so that a strong agricultural sector can achieve food security and achieve people’s welfare, especially from the agricultural sector. Therefore, the role of farmer groups needs to be improved so that the group’s performance is skilled and agile.
Based on the description above, research on the female farmer group is to examine the factors that affect the performance of the female farmer group, both in terms of characteristics, motivation and perceptions of members, so it is hoped that after the research the results of this research can be input, considerations and benchmarks for the takers. policies in an effort to improve the performance of women farmer groups.

2. Theoretical Approach
According to Hersey Blanchard, he formulates seven factors that influence the performance formulated in the Achieve, namely knowledge, skills, understanding, or perception (clarity) in organizational support (help), motivation or incentive, guidance and performance feedback (evaluation), validity and environmental support. Meanwhile, according to Gibson states that the factors influence individual performance: 1) skill abilities, family background, work experience, social demographic level, 2) psychological factors, perceptions of the role of personality attitudes, motivation, job satisfaction and 3) organizational factors; organizational structure, job design, leadership and organizational systems. Bandura (1977) explains that the social learning model assumes that learning is a process of individual interaction with their environment which is formulated as follows Behavior = person – environment. So the behavior that is formed as a result of learning is not only determined by internal individual factors, but also closely related to the environmental situation in which it is located. The performance intended in this study refers to the opinion of Gruneberg (1979), namely the behavior that is actually exhibited by a person in response to the task at hand.

3. Research methods
The research was conducted in Babakan Village, Dramaga District, Bogor Regency, West Java Province, lasted for 3 (three) months, starting from March 2014 to May 2014. This research consisted of: 1) independent variables consisting of characteristics of farmer group members, motivation of group members female farmers, and the perceptions of female farmer group members in the use of homestead land, and 2) the dependent variable, namely the performance of the female farmer group in utilizing homestead land. Data analysis used an interview and observation approach. The research was conducted using the census method. The research sample was 30 people. Based on data sources, the data in this study came from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained directly from the source, namely members of the women farmer group. Primary data were collected through interviews, using a questionnaire. Secondary data is in the form of documentation and archives from the women farmer group, Babakan Village Office, Agricultural Extension Agency and Bogor Regency Central Bureau of Statistics. The data analysis technique used in this research is to use quantitative methods with descriptive correlational testing. It is intended to determine the relationship between perceptions and the performance of female farmer group members using the Rank Spearman (rs) correlation test (Siegel, 1994). The data analysis technique used in this research is to use quantitative methods with descriptive correlational testing. It is intended to determine the relationship between perceptions and the performance of female farmer group members using the Rank Spearman (rs) correlation test (Siegel, 1994). The data analysis technique used in this research is to use quantitative methods with descriptive correlational testing. It is intended to determine the relationship between perceptions and the performance of female farmer group members using the Rank Spearman (rs) correlation test (Siegel, 1994).

4. Results and Discussion
4.1 Description of the Research Area
The Anggrek female farmer group (KWT) was established on January 30, 2012, located on Jl. Bara RT 03 / RW 07 Babakan Village, Dramaga District, Bogor Regency. The legal basis for the Orchid Farming Women Group was confirmed by the Head of Babakan Village, Dramaga District, Bogor Regency Number: 141/11 / II / 2013 dated February 1, 2013 concerning the inauguration of the KWT Anggrek Management in Babakan Village, Dramaga District, Bogor Regency. The total number of members and administrators of the Anggrek Farmer Group is 30 people.
The Orchid farmer women’s group is a female farmer group in Babakan Village, Dramaga District, Bogor Regency. It is located close to the Dramaga IPB campus, Bogor Regency. The land is narrow because of the large number of buildings used for boarding houses, giving initiative to women farmer groups how to use their yards. The number of members who are members of the group of women farmers for yard land use activities is 30 people with a total area of the group’s yards is 110.37 square meters. The commodities cultivated consist of crystal guava, eggplant, chilies, tomatoes, spinach, kale, pakcoy, cassava, family medicinal plants (TOGA) and others.

4.2 Characteristics
According to Soekartawi (1988), one of the important characteristics that influence the communication process in the adoption of technological innovation is the characteristics of farmers. Internal characteristic variables that were observed were: (1) age and (2) formal education.

4.3 Age
Table 1 presents the percentage of farmers by age. The results showed that most of the respondent farmers (93.33%) were distributed to the old category, namely between 40-65 years. The working age limit according to the Central Statistics Agency (2009) is in the range of 15-64 years and is classified as productive age, meaning that physically the pepper farmers are able to carry out farming. This shows that farmers of productive age have higher ability to work and think than older farmers. In line with the opinion of Soekartawi (1988) that age affects physical work ability and psychological maturity where young farmers have strong physical labor power but are not accompanied by psychological maturity, this often makes rash decisions that sometimes harm themselves. Young farmers to adult farmers tend to have high levels of innovation adoption, because their physical strength and psychological maturity support each other. Conversely, if the farmers are old they tend to be less innovative. Age can affect a person’s level of physical and emotional maturity which greatly determines readiness to learn (Mardikanto, 2009). Results of interviews with respondent Hj. Aisyah, who is 57 years old, said that age is not a barrier to joining the female farmer group. Results of interviews with respondent Hj. Aisyah, who is 57 years old, said that age is not a barrier to joining the female farmer group. Results of interviews with respondent Hj. Aisyah, who is 57 years old, said that age is not a barrier to joining the female farmer group.

4.4 Formal education
Education is one of the main indicators of development and the quality of human resources. Formal education is very important as a capital for farmers to carry out their activities because education can increase experience and knowledge. The level of formal education of pepper farmers in this study varied greatly, from elementary school (SD) to college. Most of the respondent farmers (96.67%) have formal education from primary school to school medium. According to Soekartawi (1988), in general, highly educated farmers are relatively faster in implementing technology adoption. On the other hand, those with less education find it difficult to implement rapid adoption of innovation. The low level of formal education of farmers has an impact on limited knowledge (Hardjanto 2003), the next implication can reduce the level of response of farmers to efforts to develop agriculture (Mosher, 1987).

4.5 Motivation of Women Farmers Group Members
Overall it can be stated that the motivation of the members of the Anggrek farmer group in Babakan Village, Dramaga District is in the category of agree to strongly agree. . This can be seen from the majority of the percentage of the motivation of women farming group members showing a high percentage of self-potential development, facilities and infrastructure and increasing members’ income. This implies that the factors that encourage the members of the female orchid farming group in the Dramaga subdistrict are classified as good.

4.6 Self Potential Development
Table 2 presents the percentage of female orchid farming group members according to their potential development. The results of the study illustrate that most of the respondents (43.30%) are in the category of strongly agreeing to the yard land use program which can make members better understand the benefits of the yard so that the potential for members can be developed and add insight and knowledge. The potential for self-development of members is the use of time to utilize the yard and understand how to cultivate vegetables from the knowledge they get.

4.7 Facilities and Infrastructure
The results of the study illustrate that most of the respondents (43.33%) are in the category of agreeing to the facilities and infrastructure provided to help members of the female farmer group in utilizing the types of plants with various facilities provided in the yard land use program. Facilities and infrastructure are supporting factors in developing the creativity of members and a place to make it easier for members to add to their skills.

4.8 Increasing income
The results of the study illustrate that most of the respondents (46.70%) are in the category of strongly agreeing that the yard land use program can increase the income of the female orchid farming group members. This means that by utilizing the yard land, it can help members meet their daily needs in providing the need for vegetables and fruits. Besides being able to meet the daily needs of members, it can also increase income, where some members already sell their vegetable crops to the people in their village environment.

4.9 Perceptions of Farmer Women Group Members
Overall, it can be stated that the perceptions of the members of the Anggrek farmer group in Babakan Village, Dramaga District are in the category of strongly agree. This can be seen from most of the percentage perceptions of women farmer group members showing a high percentage of members’ encouragement, group member support and the benefits of activities. This implies that the perception of the members of the female orchid farmer group in Dramaga subdistrict is classified as good, can be seen in Table 3.

4.10 Member encouragement
Table 3 presents the percentage of female orchid farming group members according to members’ encouragement. The results of the study illustrate that most of the respondents (70%) are in the category of strongly agreeing with the perception of members participating in the yard land use program because of the encouragement from within the women farmer group members. This means that the benefits felt by members of the women farmer group before becoming members do not understand in cultivating plants and after using their yards, they get many benefits for the family and for their home environment to be more beautiful and beautiful. So with the encouragement in members, it can be compared with before participating in activities before becoming a member of the women farmer group.

4.11 Group Member Support
The results of the study illustrate that most respondents (93.33%) are in the category of strongly agree with the perception of members participating in the yard land use program is support from the management and other members. This means that the encouragement of members to become members of a group of women farmers is to establish friendly relationships with other neighbors so as to create strong bonds and to help each other women in using their yards.

4.12 Activity Benefits
The results of the study illustrate that most of the respondents (46.67%) are in the category of strongly agreeing to the members’ perceptions that yard land use activities are good. This means that the members’ perceptions are good about the use of yard land from the benefits felt by members. The benefits felt by members can directly meet family needs in the form of vegetables and indirect benefits in the form of a more beautiful and comfortable village environment because many plants can be seen in the yard.

4.13 Factors related to the Performance of Women Farmers Group Members
The performance of women farmer group members related to motivation, perceptions and character of women farmer group members can be seen in Table 4.

Based on the results of statistical analysis using SPSS version 20, with the Spearman Correlation data analysis technique, it can be seen in table 4 that motivation has no significant relationship with the performance of the female orchid farmer group members. with a significant 0.344> 0.05 and a correlation coefficient of 0.179. Motivation is not significantly related to the performance of female members of the orchid farmer group in Babakan Village, Dramaga District and, the motivation of the members is low, meaning that the higher the performance, but the motivation does not show that high motivation does not increase performance, because this is because the women farmer groups On average, they are still busy with opening a business at home, for example laundry, opening a small shop near the house, Young female farmer group members have children under five so in addition to participating in the activities of the women farmer groups, women farmer group members also have to share their time with their families. Unproductive age group members of women farmers are also busy caring for their families. In addition, members of the women farmer groups feel that the level of need has been satisfied where the farms carried out by members in group-owned gardens can be exhibited on farms in the district. In terms of motivation, it has been able to generate motivation for members of the women farmer group apart from their own needs, to increase family income by selling crops from their yards to people who are not members of the women farmer group.
Based on the results of the calculation of spss version 20, with the spearman correlation data analysis technique, it can be seen in table 4 that the perception of the female farmer group members is significantly related to the performance of the female farmer group members with a significance of 0.5> 0.05 and the correlation coefficient of 0.177. Perception is not significantly related to the performance of members of the women farmer group in the Village of Babakan, Dramaga District, meaning that if the higher the perception of the female farmer group members, it does not have an impact on the performance of the female farmer group members, it will increase or higher because in the female farmer group members, they have the perception of participating in farming activities in The women farmer group only prioritizes friendship to strengthen neighborly relations between members of the women farmer group, not trying to manage pekarang to be more useful.
Based on the results of the calculation of spss version 20, with the spearman correlation data analysis technique, it can be seen in table 4 that the age of the female farmer group members is not significantly related to the performance of the female farmer group members with a significant 0.489> 0.05 meaning that the age of the farmer group members even though they are at productive age but do not have a strong drive and desire as well as orientation in carrying out optimal use of yard farming, because members of the women farmer group still prioritize side businesses at home. The correlation coefficient shows that age is not significantly and negatively related to the performance of the female farmer group members with the correlation coefficient – 0.131, meaning that the older the female farmer group members are, the lower the performance. According to Mardikanto (2009), farmers who are still classified as young are more nimble, productive and more receptive to innovation adoption than older ones. This means that physical abilities are still good, very supportive of his farming activities. In this study, the age of the members did not have a significant effect on performance because the experience and participation in membership was still new, so the experience in farming had little effect on their performance.
The range of farmer education starting from graduating from elementary school to graduating from tertiary education based on the results of the calculation of SPSS version 20, with the Spearman correlation data analysis technique, it can be seen in Table 4 that the formal education of farmer group members is significantly and positively related to the performance of female farmer group members with a significant 0.014 <0.05 and a correlation coefficient of 0.444, meaning that the formal education of the female farmer group members is related to the performance of the female farmer group members, where the education of most of the female farmer group members is low so that the business performance in using yard land is also low. yard land. The results of the research by Ninuk et al. (2008) explained that the higher the education of farmers, the better their performance.

5. Conclusion
Members of the women farmer groups are of a productive age and have quite a long experience in utilizing homestead land, but have not been supported by low formal education and have not been supported by an inadequate area of control of agricultural land.
The motivation of the members of the Babakan Village Orchid farmer group, Dramaga District, seen from the development of their potential, facilities and infrastructure and increasing the income of the members are in a good category
The perceptions of the members of the Babakan Village Orchid farmer group, Dramaga Subdistrict, towards the encouragement of members, support of group members and the benefits of the activities were in good categories.
FThe factors that influence the performance of the members of the Orchid Farming Woman Group in their yard land use are motivation, perceptions and characteristics of the members (age and education).

6. Bibliography
Arifin HS, Arifin NHS, Munandar A, Kaswanto. 2009. Utilization of Pekaranga in Rural Areas: Management of Rural Landscapes for Environmental Sustainability and Welfare. Jakarta (ID): Center for Food Consumption and Safety, Food Security Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture.
[BPS] Central Bureau of Statistics. 2013. Bogor Regency in Figures. Bogor Regency (ID): BPS Bogor Regency.
[BPS] Central Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Indonesian Statistics..
Mardikanto. 2009. Extension of agricultural development. Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University Press
Hardjanto, 2003. Modeling and Development of Community Timber Business in Java .[dissertation]. Bogor (ID): Bogor Agricultural University.
[Ministry of Agriculture] Ministry of Agriculture. 2013. Law No. 19 of 2013 concerning Protection and Empowerment of Farmers. Jakarta (ID): State Secretariat of the Republic Indonesia.
Mosher AT. 1987. Mobilizing and Building Agriculture. Jakarta (ID): CV. Yasaguna
Ninuk P, Basita GS. 2008. Benefits of farmer involvement in the Vegetable Agribusiness partnership scheme in West Java. Extension Journal 4 (2)