Role of Technology Management in Construction Industry of Pakistan

International Journal of Engineering & Industry
ISSN: 2191-3315, Volume 1, Issue 1, page 1 – 13
Date: 30 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Muhammad Abbas & M Saeed Lodhi

Muhammad Abbas
B-tech Civil Engineer, MS Project Management
COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus-Pakistan

M Saeed Lodhi
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management Sciences
COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus-Pakistan

The aim of this research is to introduce the findings of a recent study on the use of Technology specifically that of information technology (IT) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province; located in North-West of Pakistan. The study was conducted through a structured questionnaire survey among 53 Government engineering construction departments executing most of the civil works in the province; represent about 51% of the total number of departments in the province. The details extracted from this study provided fruitful information about what information technology the engineers are using. What are the perceived benefits and obstacles considered by the users in the Construction Industry (CI) were. The survey finds that the Technology of IT had been widely used in CI organization of KP; it is mainly used to support various individual tasks of the engineer’s services at a basic level, rather than to stimulate the production of their services as whole through automation in the province CI. Most of the respondents strongly agreed/agreed that IT play a vital role in the engineering profession; about (96%) respondents agreed that IT can shorten the time of providing Quantity Survey (QS) but they had not taken complete advantage of technology to improve their performance in the industry. They want change but they are associated with the head of the organization. In addition, KP civil secretariat secretaries are the policy makers for all the engineering organizations to date there was no comprehensive policy, to develop and boost the use of IT within the organizations. It is recommended that the regional organization must recognize the importance and adaptation of IT so that the secretaries may take appropriate actions to meet challenges the organization are facing.

Keywords: Technology; Engineers, Quantity Surveying; Information Technology; Construction Industry; Pakistan.

1. Introduction
Sectors which are the main contributors to Pakistan Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and economy are services, mining, construction, agriculture, and manufacturing respectively. Construction industry (CI) plays an important social and economic role in country. While economic growth is analyzed through GDP and use as an indicator to economic growth. CI of Pakistan has less contribution in the world list, 50th in the rank. Cost overrun, time delays, quality and safety issues are menace to the industry. In these circumstances the industry should coup with issues from initiation stage of the projects tell closing stage. With globalization as demand increases things become fast, CI also demanding efficiency and potency in operational works.
Technology especially of Information Technology (IT) is proved as a best assistance and a key enabler to CI and using as a combating force which result in bringing economic boasting. Computers are now a vital part of all effective industries. Quantity Survey (QS) a major function of Engineer in public engineering departments it includes rough cost estimates, detailed estimates, bill of quantity formation, tendering and evaluation of the work done etc. Through survey we look the context of Pakistan CI, and try to find that how they are approaching toward Technology in QS. Because software applications, a useful technology tool can help Engineers to speed up their daily works. The objective to the study is to determine the level of usage in operating tasks. Identify technology software’s, the problems and benefits in using IT. And further more that how Pakistani CI Engineers cum QSs is moving with time toward IT.
The aim of construction activities is to build artifacts such as ports, roads, bridges, tunnels, and buildings etc. Civil Engineering artifacts differ from other manufacturing products, to be built in a location which is specific, rather than in factories (Bjork, 1999). Managing construction activities from initial stage of design through to the closing stage requires knowledge in each phase of the constructed facilities (Olanrewaju and Anahye, 2015). Ghandour and Al-Hussein (2004) described the impact of the economic reforms upon the CI, reveal the fundamental changes in the CI since the economic reform and explain the leading role of the CI in the country’s economic development. Impressive progress has been made by the CI and has developed at an amazing speed.
Technology management of IT has been given little attention within the CI in the past. As a result numerous IT solutions have been developed to act as a driver in the construction and design process. Remarkable changes have been experienced in past two decades in the CI of Australia and Asia-Pacific due to changing in industry and Technology ……….

2. Literature Review
In word today every country wants development in most of the sectors especially in those which amass economic and social rising in country. Some countries fail in planning and investment for Technology in the sector. Malaysia government is working on that and nudging down individual towards better management of technology of IT for achieving long term objectives to accomplish developing country status in 2020(Mastura et al., 2007). Within the CI technology management of IT should be developed and use as an enabler to the winder operational needs of the CI. IT use is growing rapidly and is expected to become the leading Technology for communication between organizations ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: Role of Technology Management in Construction Industry of Pakistan.

The Influence of Element Marketing Communication, Relationship Commitment, Business on the Quality on Consumer Relations Against Customer Loyalty

International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 32 – 54
Date: 22 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Haris Hermawan, Raden Andi Sularso, Diah Yulisetiarini & Hari Sukarno

Haris Hermawan & Raden Andi Sularso
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

Diah Yulisetiarini & Hari Sukarno
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

The ASEAN Economic Community (MEA) is the integration of ASEAN member countries into the economic community for its people, in the era of the ASEAN Economic Community there are many challenges and opportunities faced by small culinary businesses in general. The challenge faced is increasingly fierce competition and competitors will take customers who are loyal to the product, the opportunity to be achieved is the growing market share in ASEAN. ASEAN economic blueprint in the MEA era is a challenge and opportunity for companies in Indonesia. This research includes the type of explanatory research or confirmatory research. The variables in this study are marketing soft sell (X1), Hard sell Marketing communication (X2), Relationship Commitment (X3), Relationship Quality (Y1), and Customer Loyalty (Y2). Data interval measurements (interval scale data) that produce responses to stimuli are presented in semantic (bipolar adjective) categories. The method used is a purposive sampling method based on quota. The analysis used to test the hypothesis in this study is SEM-Structural Equation Modeling) The findings of this study in the form of emotion shopping mediation from business to consumer relationship quality in triggering impulse buying based on marketing soft sell communication, marketing communication hard sell and relationship commitment. The research findings show that the direct effect of business to consumer relationship quality on customer loyalty is 51.3%, impulse buying in the form of relationship commitment with affective-emotional indicators (willing to buy because of affective attitude with the seller’s commitment), cognitive-calculative (perceived that the company has the ability to provide competitive prices), Non-Coercive seller (ability to offer products to buy along with specific manner of salesmen), Uncertainty avoidance (having clear rules to prevent customer confusion) These indicators are based on characteristics that can be defined and observed by customers , while the emotion of business to consumer relationship quality arising from this study comes from the Money-back guarantee indicator, Trust (trust that grows in relational relations), Commitment (keeping promises), Satisfaction (customer satisfaction felt ) The findings of this study are to confirm and extend the results of empirical studies from previous studies that prove that: there is a guarantee of the company’s ability to repay money if the order is not appropriate.

Keywords: Soft Sell Marketing, Hard Sell Marketing, Relationship Commitment, Business to Consumer Relationship Quality Customer Loyalty, Impulse Buying & Shopping Emotion.

1. Background of the Research
1.1 Introduction
Kotler and Armstrong (2008: 10) states that marketing communication aims to find, attract, retain and grow target customers by creating, delivering, and communicating value superiority with customers while maintaining loyal customers, maintaining customer loyalty means the company’s ability to position its products in mind customers and try to think of customers as partners by strengthening customer confidence, always interacting, if necessary develop for mutual progress. Terence (2003: 24-29) states the character of marketing communication: (1) influences behavior, (2) starts from customers and prospective customers, (3) uses one or all means to “contact”, (4) tries to create synergy, (5) establish relationships.
Customer loyalty is defined as the loyalty shown by customers to products with indicators: loyal to continuous purchase-retention (Olivares et al., 2018), repurchase-buying (Kenningham et al., 2015), recommending products or service recommendations as well as reference source for referrals (Ku et al., 2016; Berman, 2015), so that customers have endurance not affected by other products-resistance (Mani and Chuck, 2017).
Customer consumption behavior begins to shift, retail customers shop through stores, now through online shops. This behavior is ……….

1.2 Research Gap
Research gap; (1) soft sell that performs its functions as follows: uses more visual imagery and are more subtle and ambiguous than hard sell ones, which are relatively more informational and focus on tangible product features, and (2) hard sell can be equated with informational advertising, particularly the kind that uses strong arguments and demands for action on these two elements based on research by Bradley et al. (1994); Messaris (1998); Alden et al. (1999); Okazaki et al. (2014); Prasertchuwong (2015). Zia (2014) and Rahi et al. (2016) state that Public Relations and Publicity will be effective for customer loyalty when customers have a good shopping experience, customers can conduct testimonials. Husnain et al. (2015); Khizar et al. (2016); Chang et al. (2016) states that there is proven direct marketing and commitment from the company will increase customer loyalty. Pongpaew et al. (2016); Verma et al. (2015); Jalillvand et al. (2012); Bilgihan (2016) states that interactive / internet marketing by means of social media, online shop can increase trust in marketing and influence loyalty, but otherwise Xu (2016) states that web-advertising does not affect customer loyalty if it is difficult to enter the url (uniform resource locator) ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: The Influence of Element Marketing Communication, Relationship Commitment, Business on the Quality on Consumer Relations Against Customer Loyalty.

Geoelectric Exploration for Groundwater in Mbaitoli L.G.A. Imo State Nigeria using Resistivity Data

International Journal of Biology, Physics & Matematics
ISSN: 2721-3757, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 14 – 23
Date: 22 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Ikechukwu E. Nwosu & Happiness N. Iwuoha

Ikechukwu E. Nwosu & Happiness N. Iwuoha
Department of Physics, Imo State University
Owerri Nigeria

Geoelectric survey carried out at Mbaitoli in Imo State of Southeastern Nigeria has shown that there is a potential for groundwater resource in this region. Vertical electric sounding utilizing the Schlumberger electrode configuration was used to survey 10 fairly well distributed points within the study Area. Interpretation of resistivity data within the area revealed 5-6 geoelectric layers within the area. The VES data was acquired using a resistivity metre with a maximum half current electrode separation of 400m. Furthermore the acquired data were interpreted using the combination of curve matching and computer iterative modeling techniques involving the Schlumberger software version 9.2. Results of the study revealed that aquifer depth varied from 83.2m at Alaenyi Ogwa to 169m at Umuduru Ifeakala with a mean value of 138.22m.The apparent resistivity varied from 338ohm-m at Obokpo Ubomiri to 161,000ohm-m at Ihite Afara with a mean value of 5,2904.8ohm-m. Aquifer thickness ranged from 24.9m at Umuowa Obokpo to 73.9m at Odumara Obi Orodo with a mean value of 48.81m.

Keywords: Apparent Resistivity, Aquiferous Zones, Geoelectric Layers, Geometric Factor, Schlumberger Configuration.

1. Introduction
This paper describes a geoelectric exploration for groundwater undertaken at Mbaitoli L.G.A. of Imo State, Southeastern Nigeria. The objectives are to study the occurrence of ground water in the Mbaitoli area of Imo State, determine the depth to water table and obtain the thickness of aquiferous zones.
Groundwater is the water found underground on the cracks and spaces of soil, sand, and rocks where it is stored and moves slowly through geologic formations (called aquifers). Groundwater is globally important and a valuable renewable resource for human life and economic development. An estimated 2 billion people worldwide rely on ground water for their drinking water supply Morris et al (2003).
In general, geoelectric measurements enable the electric resistivity of the subsurface to be determined. The interpretation of data from such measurements yields useful information on the structure and composition of these subsurface layers. Resistivity techniques are well established and widely used to solve a variety of geotechnical and geological problems (Ward; 1990). The primary purpose of the resistivity method is to measure the potential differences on the surface due to the current flow within the ground. Many research works have been done using electrical resistivity method. These include; Uma (1989) who carried out a study on the groundwater resources of Imo river basin using hydrological data from existing boreholes and concluded that three aquifer systems (confined, unconfined and semi-confined aquifers) exist in the area. Mbonu, et al (1990) carried out seventeen Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) in parts of Umuahia area for the generation of aquifer parameters. Agbodike I.I.C. et al (2013) used electrical resistivity method to determine the depth and thickness of the aquiferous zones in the Oru area of Imo-State ……..

2. Location and Geomorphology of the Study Area
The survey area lies within latitudes 50 31’N and 50 4’N and longitude 60 56’E to 70 08’E (Ofodile, 2001). The designated area covers about 204km2. It has a population of 237,555 with 31 autonomous communities. The town comprises such communities as Umunoha, Afara, Ifakala, Orodo, Ubomiri, Egbeada, Idem Ogwa, Awo Mbieri, Alaenyi Ogwa, Abazu Ogwa and Ochi Ogwa among others Emmanuel et al (2014). The map of this study area is shown in figure 1. It lies within the tropical rain forest belt of Nigeria with luxuriant growth of trees, it has humid tropical climate with high temperature and seasonal rainfall. Two main climate seasons characterized the study area namely: dry and rainy seasons. The rainy season starts from April to October with a mean annual rainfall of about 1,500mm to 2000mm. The dry season extends from November to March, in between this period harmattan occurs. The area has an average annual temperature above 200C which creates an annual relative humidity of 75%. The study area is drained by both surface water and groundwater ………

Journal Full Text PDF: Geoelectric Exploration for Groundwater in Mbaitoli L.G.A. Imo State Nigeria using Resistivity Data.

Current Applications, Future Development and Challenges of Molecular Technologies in Livestock

International Journal of Agriculture & Agribusiness
ISSN: 2391-3991, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 1 – 6
Date: 21 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Birhan Kassa

Birhan Kassa
Haramaya University
Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute
Andassa Livestock Research Center
Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Biotechnologies in farm animals provides a major opportunity to overcome challenges in livestock production. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism is recently applicable molecular genetics technologies in livestock which is valuable and efficient molecular marker. In SNP, there have been numerous progresses in whole genome sequencing, in the development of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput genotyping platform. Polymorphic loci of known chromosomal location are identified, and methods to type these polymorphisms are developed and tested on individuals with relevant phenotypes, and statistical relationships are calculated. Improvement of economically important agronomic traits like yield and quality that are complicatedly inherited is still a great challenge for molecular animal breeding.

Keyword: Deoxyribonucleic acid, Genomics, Molecular Animal Breeding, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism.

1. Introduction
Animal genomics is of interest because of its importance to produce high quality food products economically and efficiently to furnish for the increasing supply demand gap all over the world. There is evidence for a rapidly increasing demand for livestock products in developing countries as a result of high population and income growth and life style changes.Genomic biotechnologies in farm animals offer a major opportunity to address shortages in agriculture production to feed the global society at large. Benefiting from the PCR techniques, the molecular markers have now become a fashionable way for the identification and characterization of animal species. In the last decades a number of marker techniques were consequently developed, in particular RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism), RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA), microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism). The presence or absence of markers allows the genotyping of individuals and populations. A very exhilarating and fast developing application of genetic markers is in the mapping of the various animal genomes.
The theoretical studies of linkage mapping, finding quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the marker assisted selection or genotype selection have been developed in the previous decade. DNA markers can be employed to make out the specific region of chromosome where genes affecting quantitative traits are located. One approach is known as Marker assisted selection (MAS) uses information about these sections of chromosomes in livestock selection programs …………

2. Literature Review
2.1. Current Applications of Molecular Genetics Technologies in Livestock
The genomics technologies in livestock present a major and foremost opportunity to address the responsibilities of agricultural production to humanity at large. Animal form a distinctive genomics resource as a result of their significant phenotypic diversity and of their population structure which make them particularly furnish for positional cloning. These are the assembly of techniques used in genetic screening to identify the precise area of interest in genome. The purpose of genomic technologies is the characterization and mapping of the locus that affected these traits of interest (Koopaei and Koshkoiyeh, 2011).
The current advancement in characterizing the genomes of animals, including the identification of large number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) make a major impact on the identification of genes and mutation underlying this phenotypic diversity including diseases susceptibility, morphology and behavior (Archibald et al., 2010). Millions of genomic DNA variation included point mutations, deletions, insertion and segmental duplications discovered through whole genome sequencing (consortium et al., 2009). Recently genomic and bioinformatics advances have also created reasonable opportunities to researchers to characterize livestock species in term of function of their genes (McCarthy et al., 2009). Genome sequencing, expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps with automated genotyping and database management are speedily becoming valuable constituents of our genomic toolbox. These technologies are used in providing assure for genome mining and gene discovery ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: Current Applications, Future Development and Challenges of Molecular Technologies in Livestock.

Uniqueness of Dirichlet Series and Algebraic Independence in Selberg Class

International Journal of Biology, Physics & Matematics
ISSN: 2721-3757, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 1 – 14
Date: 21 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Ali Mohamed Abuoam Musshim

Ali Mohamed Abuoam Musshim
Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Department of Mathematics and Computer
International University of Africa
Suand or Sudan

A more precise result is obtained under more restrictive assumptions but still applying to a large class of Dirichlet series. This implies that the equation F^a = G^b with (a, b) = 1 has the unique solution F = H^b and G = H^a in the Selberg class. As a consequence, we show that if F and G are distinct primitive elements of the Selberg class, then the transcendence degree of C[F,G] over C is two.

Keywords: Dirichlet Series, Selberg C, Transcendence Degree, Riemann Zeta Function, L-functions, Zeros and Poles.

1. Introduction
In this paper, we show that how L-functions are determined by their zeros. L-functions are Dirichlet series with the Riemann zeta function ζ(s) = ∑_(n=1)^∞▒1/n^s as the prototype and are important objects in number theory. Also, we discuss that under certain mild analytic assumptions one obtains a lower bound, essentially of order r , for the number of zeros and poles of a Dirichlet series in a disk of radius r. A more precise result is also obtained under more restrictive assumptions but still applying to a large class of Dirichlet series. More- over we show that the Selberg class S has a natural structure of semi-group.

2. Selberg Class of Dirichlet Series
This section concerns the question of how L-functions are determined by their zeros? L-functions are Dirichlet series with the Riemann zeta function ζ(s) = ∑_(n=1)^∞▒1/n^s as the prototype and are important objects in number theory. An L_function in the Selberg class S means a Dirichlet series L(s)= ∑_(n=1)^∞▒(a(n))/n^s of a complex variable s = σ +it with a(1) =1, satisfying the following axioms [1]:
(i) (Dirichlet series) For σ > 1, L(s) is an absolutely convergent Dirichlet series,
(ii) (Analytic continuation) There is a non-negative integer k such that〖(s-1)〗^kL(s) is an entire function of finite order,
(iii) ( Functional equation ) L satisfies a functional equation of type

Λ_L (s)=ω(Λ_L (1-s ̅)) ̅ ,
Where Λ_L (s) = L(s)Q^s ∏_(j=1)^K▒Γ(λ_j s+μ_j) with positive real numbers Q, λ_j , and complex numbers μ_j , ω with Reμ_j ≥ 0 and |ω| = 1,
(iv) (Ramanujan hypothesis) a(n) ≪n^ε for every ε > 0,
(v) (Euler product) logL(s) =∑_(n=1)^∞▒(b(n))/n^s , where b(n) = 0 unless n is a positive power of a prime and b(n) ≪n^θ for some θ <1/2 .
The degree d_(L )of an L-function L is defined to be d_(L ) =2∑_(j=1)^K▒λ_j , where K, λ_j are the numbers in the axiom (iii).
The Selberg class includes the Riemann zeta-function ζ and essentially those Dirichlet series where one might expect the analogue of the Riemann hypothesis at the same time, there are a whole host of interesting Dirichlet series not possessing Euler product [2], [3]. All L-functions are assumed to be in the extended Selberg class of those only satisfying the axioms (i)-(iii) [3].
Two L-functions with “enough” common zeros are expected to be“dependent” in certain sense (cf. [4]), which, as pointed out in [4], appears to be a very difficult problem. On the other hand, L-functions are meromorphic functions and meromo-rphic functions possess the well-known uniqueness property by Nevanlina’s uniq-ueness theorem two nonconstant meromorphic functions f, g in C must be identic-ally equal if f and g share five distinct values c_j∈ C∪{∞} in the sense that f − c_j and g − c_j have the same zeros without counting multiplicities ( [5] or [2]). For L-functions satisfying the same functional equation and sharing two complex numb-ers c_1, c_2, Steuding proved the uniqueness under a condition on the number of the distinct zeros of L−〖 c〗_j (see [2]). Further considered if this still holds for one shared value and, in particular showed that two L-functions satisfying the same functi-onal equation can be distinct even if they have the same zeros with, of course, diff-erent multiplicities.
An L-function L is completely determined by the functional equation and its nontrivial zeros x, allowing an exceptional set G of x in Z^+(L), which is the set of nontrivial zeros of L counted with multiplicity.As usual nontrivial zeros of an L-function L are those not coming from the poles of the Γ factors in the functional equation. We would like G to be as large as possible. The size of G can be meas-ured by the usual counting function n(r,G), the number of points in G ∩{ |s| < r} counted with multiplicity. It would be tempting to think that the condition n(r,G) = o(r) would be the best to obtain for the exceptional set, since n(r,Z(L)) of an L-function of degree zero is O(r).However, a quite delicate analysis shows that a sharp condition can be given in terms of the type of G

Journal Full Text PDF: Uniqueness of Dirichlet Series and Algebraic Independence in Selberg Class.

Comparative Analysis of Principals Role in Establishment of Effective School Environment

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 19 – 25
Date: 13 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Nauman Saeed & Sheema

Nauman Saeed & Sheema
Department of Education Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University (PMAS AAUR)
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

This study was design to investigation the role of school principal in establishment of effective school environment at secondary level in district Kotli Azad Kashmir. It was descriptive study in nature. Simple random technique was used to draw sample from the population. 30% schools (42 schools) were selected randomly and data was collected through structured interview taken from the principals belonging to this study. Findings of the study was that principal can play his/her role to improve effective school environment by using various strategies in this respect. Main recommendation of the study was that principals should provide freedom to perform their active and positive role to improve effective school environment.

Keywords: Principal, School, Effectiveness, Secondary, Environment, Teacher, Education.

1 Introduction
1.1 School Effectiveness
Cheng (1996) said that effectiveness of school is the capability of the school to make best use of institutional functions or it is the degree in which the school can act upon institutional functions when fixed amount of institutional inputs is given. According to Creemers (1994) Educational effectiveness is differentiated from the study of educational effects which also described unanticipated educational outcomes i.e the hidden curriculum results. Alternatively, it is also seen as of the concept of educational competency which concerned with the association between the inputs of education and the effects of education, mostly in the terms of finance. Effectiveness points out such factors at the different stages of any education system to contribute in outcomes of education. As Creemers (1994) explore that at such moment; the most excellent standard for the effectiveness of education is the worth of education puts into the preliminary traits of learners.

1.2 Research Questions
Following research questions were formulated for investigation:
a. How principals play their role in establishing the effective school environment?
b. Which strategies are required by principals to improve effective school environment?
c. Which qualities are required for principals to improve school effectiveness?

1.3 Objectives of The Study
This research is intended to achieve the under listed objectives;
a. To identify the principals role in establishing the effective school environment.
b. To explore the strategies which used by principals to improve effective school environment.
c. To investigate the required qualities for principals to improve school effectiveness.

2 Literature Review
2.1 The Principal Role In Achieving School Effectiveness
Usually the betterment of a school or the extent of its achievement is recognized in terms of its effectiveness and success as a whole, i.e. organizational effectiveness. This research includes categorizing the effective schools on basis of the factors that are present in the schools and then compare the results of the schools accordingly and promoting ideas and suggestions for the improvement of the results (Mortimore, 1998). According to my research, the question that what school principals could do to foster effectiveness do to foster school effectiveness was the main point. In addition to that we also gathered views about this from the school teachers.

2.2 Features of Effective Schools
Previous attempts of understanding and marking the traits of effective schools were classified by the differences in number of factors as well as the differences among the factors as well. (e.g., Edmonds, 1982; Brophy, 1982; Metzler 1990).

2.3 The Role of School Environment
Hallinger & Heck’s (1998) review which took place between 1980 and 1995 stated that the principal of the school, notably the principals of an institution played a great role in the lives of their students, especially in their achievements ……….

Journal Full Text PDF: Comparative Analysis of Principals Role in Establishment of Effective School Environment (Study at Secondary Level in District Kotli Azad Kashmir).

Triggering Impulsive Buying Based on Brand Personality, Promotion and Servicescape with Mediation Shopping Emotion

International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 20 – 31
Date: 9 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Qori’atul Adawiyah, Imam Suroso & M. Dimyati

Qori’atul Adawiyah
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

Imam Suroso
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

M. Dimyati
Faculty of Economics and Bussiness, University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia

This study aims to determine the direct influence of brand personality, promotion, and servicescape on impulse buying through the mediation of wardah shopping emotion products in Roxi Banyuwangi. The research was also conducted to find out indirect brand personality, promotion, and servicescape knowledge on impulse buying through wardah shopping emotion in Roxy’s Banyuwangi. This study was conducted in Roxi Banyuwangi at the wardah cosmetic outlet. The population in this study was 140 people. The analytical tool used in this study is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to determine the direct and indirect effects of independent variables with dependent variables. The results of this study are that brand personality has a significant effect on shopping emotion. Promotion has a significant effect on shopping emotion Servicescape has a significant effect on shopping. Brand personality has a significant effect on impulse buying. Promotion has a significant effect on impulse buying. Servicescape has a significant effect on impulse buying. Shopping emotion has a significant effect on impulse buying. Shoping emotion mediation in the influence of brand personality on impulse buying in Roxy Banyuwangi shows significant and positive effects. Shopping emotion mediation in the influence of promotion on impulse buying in Roxy Banyuwangi shows significant and positive results. The shopping emotion mediation in the servicescape influence on impulse buying in Roxy Banyuwangi showed significant results and had a positive effect.

Keywords: Brand Personality, Promotion, Servicescape, Impulse Buying, & Shopping Emotion.

1. Introduction
Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that are related to the brand. Brand personality is important because it can add more value to the eyes of consumers for a brand and is also able to influence consumer purchasing decisions (Best, 2007). Promotion is one element that has an important role in marketing. Sales promotion is a form of direct persuasion through the use of various incentive tools to encourage the purchase of a particular product or service quickly and increase the amount of goods purchased by consumers (Tjiptono, 2008: 86). The various forms of sales promotion are the best known POP or point of purchase. POP includes all visual forms created by brand owners, starting from display installation, floor advertising to product placement with attractive shapes or sequences. Besides POP sales promotions can also be done in the form of contests. Usually, product brand owners set up their booths and hold several prize competitions. Another form is to give prizes that can be exchanged directly by making discounts or providing gifts and samples attached to the products sold. In addition, retailers have the ability to manipulate store environments in order to encourage impulse buying, one of which is to create a convenient and attractive shopping environment so that consumers can enjoy shopping activities (Tjiptono, 2008: 97). Emotion shoping also includes one that affects impulse buying. Emotions are generally triggered by environmental events (Solomon, 2007: 114). A person’s mood or emotions or a person’s psychological condition at the time of purchase can have a big impact on what he buys or how he values his purchases.
At present the development of the Indonesian cosmetics industry is relatively solid. Wardah’s cosmetic product sales increase occurred from 2011 to 2012. In 2011, Mustika Ratu’s products were the first place to achieve the biggest sales in the cosmetics category, but Wardah took second place. In 2012 until 2015, Wardah took the position and conversely Mustika Ratu was second after Wardah. Although it is at the top of 2012 until 2015, Wardah must remain vigilant against its competitors. It can be seen also from the table above, that Wardah’s sales increase ……..

2. Literature Review
Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that have relevance to the brand Best, et al (2007) stating that. Brands with personalities tend to be more impressive and better than brands with no personality, just as human brands can have various personalities such as being professional or being competent in Aaker (2008). Based on this understanding, it can be concluded that brand personality is a characteristic that exists in someone who has a relationship with a brand. Brand personality is important because it can add value to the eyes of consumers for a brand. Aaker has developed a brand personality dimension which is a framework for describing and measuring brand personality in five core dimensions.
Promotion is one part of a series of marketing activities for an item. Promotion is an activity in the field of marketing which is a communication carried out by the company to buyers or consumers that includes reporting, persuading, and influencing everything about goods and services produced for consumers, while the activity aims to increase sales volume by attracting consumers’ interest in making decisions buy at the company. To clarify about the notion of promotion, here are some definitions of promotion (Tjiptono, 2000: 219) …….

3. Methodology
This study uses confirmatory research because it aims to explain and test or prove a theory or hypothesis to strengthen or reject existing research theories or hypotheses. The influence in question is the brand personality influence of sales promotion and servicescape on impulse buying with shopping emotion as an intervening variable. This study uses quuneruner and likert scale measurements to measure research variables.
The population of this research is all consumers of wardah products who are making unplanned purchases on wardah products in Roxy’s Banyuwangi. The sampling technique used in this study ……..

Journal Full Text PDF: Triggering Impulsive Buying Based on Brand Personality, Promotion and Servicescape with Mediation Shopping Emotion.

The Influence of Work Satisfaction, Antecedent Satisfaction and Consumer’s Loyalty Through Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Consumer’s Interaction Quality

Published on International Journal of Economics & Business
ISSN: 2717-3151, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 10 – 19
Date: 9 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Raden Andi Sularso, Iwan Mulyawan, Lanny Purnama Kosasi, Raden Roro Lia Chairina, Purnamie Titi Sari, & Fajar Destari

Raden Andi Sularso, Purnamie Titisari, & Fajar Destari
Faculty of Economics & Business, University of Jember, Indonesia

Iwan Mulyawan
Bandung Polytechnic, Indonesia

Lanny Purnama Kosasi
Pancasetia Banjarmasin Economics College, Indonesia

Raden Roro Lia Chairina
Jember Polytechnic, Indonesia

This study is included in explanatory research. The population is 18 Matahari Department retail Store in East Java. The respondents in this study are employees of salespeople and consumers, this study is also called dyad research, because it uses two different respondents, while the technique of drawing proportional rondom sampling and sub-samples of consumer sub-samples simple random sampling Data analysis methods used Generalized Structured Components Analysis (GSCA). This study concludes that: 1) Job satisfaction has a significant and positive effect on OCB; 2) Job satisfaction has no significant effect on satisfaction; 3) Job satisfaction has a significant and positive effect on the quality of consumer interaction; 4) OCB has a significant and positive effect on the quality of consumer interaction; 5) OCB has no significant effect on the quality of consumer interaction; 6) Quality of consumer interaction has a significant and positive effect on customer satisfaction; and 7) Consumer satisfaction has no significant effect on consumer loyalty..

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, OCB, Quality of Consumer Interaction, Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty.

1. Introduction
Research on the relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction in the retail sector is still not widely done, it is expected that the results of this study can be a reference that supports further studies related to the relationship of employee job satisfaction and customer satisfaction. The object of this study is Matahari Department Store for several reasons. Matahari Department Store is one of the pioneering local retailers of the concept of the first Department Store in Indonesia that is growing rapidly and is able to compete with outside retailers entering Indonesia. Matahari Department Store itself has been a company that went public since 1992.
Global companies experience a shift from conventional approaches to contemporary approaches (Tjiptono, 2011: 480). Conventional approaches emphasize customer satisfaction, cost reduction, market share, and market research. While the contemporary approach focuses on customer loyalty, customer retention, zero defections, and lifelong customers. One strategy that can facilitate customer satisfaction and loyalty is relationship marketing (RM). The theoretical study which is the basis for studying the formation of the relationship between employee job satisfaction and customer satisfaction and customer loyalty refers to the basis of relationship marketing theory.
Gronroos (1990) defines relationship marketing by developing, maintaining, improving and commercializing customer relations to achieve the goals of all parties involved. Relationship marketing not only emphasizes the relationship between organizations and customers, but also with other stakeholders. In the field of consumer satisfaction management (Fornell et, al., 1996; Oliver, 1996) and employee job satisfaction (Brown and Peterson, 1993; Churchill et. Al., 1985) are two of the most studied fields, but not much research connecting the two into one study, although theoretically consumer satisfaction is strongly related to employee satisfaction (Robbins and Judge, 2008: 115; Kotler and Keller, 2012: 364).

2. Literature Review
The Homburg and Stock (2004) study concluded that the relationship between job satisfaction and customer satisfaction is very strong, especially when the quality of consumer interaction increases. This study developed a study conducted by Homburg and Stock (2004), in addition to the three variables above this study included variables of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and loyalty generated from studies of other studies. The Homburg and Stock (2004) study only looked at the relationship of employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction through the quality of interactions based on consumer perceptions, but in this study included OCB variables based on employee perceptions ………

3. Research Methodology
The population of this study was carried out at the Matahari Department Store retail in Java as many as 18 retailers with an analysis unit of salespeople and consumers. This study is also called dyadic research because it uses two different respondents, while the technique of drawing sub-samples of employees using proportional rondom sampling and the technique of withdrawing consumer sub-samples is done by simple random sampling, which is taking consumers served by respondents using odd numbers (1st, 3rd and so on).
Determination of the sample in this study uses the following formula (Anderson et., Al, 2011: 326);
Where: n is the sample size, zα / 2 is the confidence level used (95% = 1.96), σ is the population standard deviation (using 9.65) and E is the margin of error (using 2). If the data is entered in a formula, it will get n = 89.43 or = 90 people.
The number of salespeople who became a sample is 90 salespeople. Following previous dyadic research (Hartline and Ferrell, 1996; Roman & Iacobucci, 2010), every one (1) salesperson will ………

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An Evaluative Study of Educational Background of Government Services Employees

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 11 – 18
Date: 8 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Haleema Bibi & Qaisara Parveen

Haleema Bibi
Department of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences
Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Qaisara Parveen
Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences
University of Arid Agriculture University
Rawalpidi Pakistan

Education is the product of experience. It is necessary for the personality grooming of individuals. Quality of human resources depends upon the quality of education of a country. It is the process by which the experience of the race, i.e. knowledge, skill and attitude are transmitted to the member of the community. “Education means that training which is given by suitable habits to the fist instincts of virtue in children when pleasure and pain are rightly implanted in non-rational souls. Education is the word, which has been derived from Latin language. It means to bring up, to nourish, a social function, thus it serves the society, which maintains it and it is first and for most roles is to conserve the existing culture by transmitting it from generation to generation. Teacher’s degrees are effectiveness for the students’ performance in the subject areas of mathematics, science, English and history. Teachers are like a key element to educational quality because they orchestrate instructional interaction with and between students around academic content, and these classrooms interactions-in an ideal world-influence student learning.

Keywords: Teacher Performance; Achievements of Students; Urban and Rural, Secondary Level.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
Education is accepted as a fundamental right of all members of a society. The purpose of education is not merely to inculcate new knowledge and skills in the individuals but also to prepare children for social responsibility and to meet the challenge of the time. It is quite evident that the development of nation is greatly depends on the development of education. No country can march forward without taking into consideration the demands of changed circumstances. Every nation develops its education system keeping in view the developmental needs of its people. According to Guruge, A.W.P (1981 p.83.84).
Pakistan is one of many developing countries with a recent history of rapid growth within the private education sector. Since Pakistan steps into a free market economy in the early 1990s, education has become a very important key to human resource development. However, while the demand of education begins growing faster and faster, public education is still in poor condition and unresponsive to the growing need and free markets that offer people what they want stated that since competition among public schools has not been introduced, parents are free to choose any schools they want for their children. On the one hand, competition among private schools is very strong, so each school has managed many kinds of strategies in order to attract the parents as well as their children to participate the school. Private school enrollment is not a simple function of parental preferences. The quality of private schools can be a high demand in which parents seek for their child’s education. Private education is often perceived to be about serving the needs of the high and middle classes, not the poor. Most of parents want to provide the best educational environment for their children. The parents decide to invest their children in form of education depends on number of social, cultural and economic factors (Rehman et al(2010). Parents usually decide to choose the best quality school for their youngsters when they are dissatisfied with public school. Private schools are mostly more effective than public schools in terms of school environment, qualified teachers, smaller size of classes and parents’ education. Public school due to various reasons ……..

2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Population
There were two population groups. First as students and second was secondary school teacher s The target population of the study was consist of all 372349(233304 male and 139045) students enrolled in 9th and 10thin 2227 secondary school s(1422 male and 805 female) of District Abbottabad. Second group of population were 33259 (22280 male and 10979female) of same secondary schools. The description of population is given in ……..

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Effect Of Political Violence In Nigeria

International Journal of Social, Politics & Humanities
ISSN: 2797-3735, Volume 1, Issue 2, page 1 – 10
Date: 7 November 2018
© Copyright International Journal of Zambrut

Umar Lawal Aliyu

Umar Lawal Aliyu
Faculty Of Management, Department Of Business Administration
LIGS University Hawaii, USA

Political violence is violence outside of state control that is politically motivated. Some political scientists see political violence as part of “contentious politics” or collective political struggle, which includes such things as revolutions, civil war, riots and strikes, but more peaceful protest movements. Crime and warfare share some attributes with political violence, but political scientists do not define them as political violence. Political violence is violence perpetrated by people or governments to achieve political goals. It can describe violence used by a state against other states or against non-state actors. It can also describe politically motivated violence by non-state actors against a state or against other non-state actors. Political violence is violence perpetrated by people or governments to achieve political goals. … At other times, governments use force in order to defend their country from outside invasion or other threats of force and to coerce other governments or conquer territory. For democracy to be at equitable standard and delivery politicians that improve masses welfare and mensch must be informed to vote and hold politicians accountable in the event of any eventual pitfall because most politicians often manage to secure votes by stirring up greed, rivalry, or fear. Improving democracy therefore requires that we must find ways to reduce the role that greed, rivalry and fear play in the electoral process, especially in young democracies such as those in Africa. However, the study aimed at determining the causes and level of the effect of political violence in Nigeria.

Keywords: Crime, Democracy, Election, Offence, Political violence, Politicians, Rivalry, Vote.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Greed, rivalry, fear or egomania, few among others in politics have been among causes of political violence. Critical examination of the causes of the political violence in Nigeria revealed that the immediate causes of the phenomenon in the country include imposition of candidates on party members. Others are, lack of democratic institutions and culture; the prevailing political mind of- set of do – or die and winner takes- all; partisanship of law enforcement agencies; lack of prompt judicial response to the cases of electoral offences, the general socioeconomic downturn that has rather remained unaddressed over the years. The fundamental question is; what can be done to reduce the role of malfeasant electoral strategies like vote-buying, lack of democratic institutions and culture; the prevailing political mind of- set of do – or die and winner takes- all; partisanship of law enforcement agencies; lack of prompt judicial response to the cases of electoral offences, ethnic polarization, or violent intimidation? However, encouraging empowerment and creating awareness campaign encouraging Nigerian voters to oppose electoral violence may reduce it to a minimal level.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Nigeria is a country of overlapping regional, religious, and ethnic divisions. Rifts between the North and the South of the country, ethnic groups, and Islam and Christianity often coincide and have sometimes resulted in political or sectarian violence.
Since the end of military rule, Nigeria’s elites have largely cordoned off national presidential elections from sectarian divisions by predetermining presidential and vice presidential victors. Their People’s Democratic Party (PDP) nominates one southern Christian and one northern Muslim for the presidency and vice presidency. Every eight years the party rotates the office for which it nominates Christian and Muslim candidates. Excluded as it is from this process of political horse-trading, known as zoning, Nigeria’s ethnically and religiously fractured public has become increasingly indifferent to the country’s national electoral politics. The question is why it must always be Muslim/Christian candidates and why not Muslim/Muslim or Christian/ Christian? Evidence we find suggests political parties formed along ethnic divides are more prone to violence, which leads us to argue in favour of the reciprocal-vote approach …………

2. Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Different researchers have examined the link between election outcome, electoral participation and electoral violence but all have limited their theories and views to how they see it according to their perspective field of study. Hickman (2009) examines the impact of violence on voter turnout and election results in Sri Lanka. According to him, violence perpetrated by individuals associated with one political party, leads to a reduction in turnout for the opposition or another party. Another paper using the Afrobarometer data from Nigeria shows that vote buying is far more effective than violence (Bratton, 2008). Bratton also demonstrates that the most common response to any form of \illegitimate campaigning”, e.g. violence or vote buying, is abstention. We extend this literature by examining multiple countries and looking at heterogeneity in the impact of violence ……….

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